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Stress is a leading risk factor for the onset and recurrence of major depression. Enhancing stress resilience may be a therapeutic strategy to prevent the development of depression in at-risk populations or its recurrence in depressed patients. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGlu) antagonists have been recognized for antidepressant-like actions in preclinical models, but have not been evaluated for prophylactic effects. We assessed the role of mGlu in modulating stress resilience using subtype-specific knockout mice lacking mGlu (Grm2) or mGlu (Grm3), and pharmacological manipulations of mGlu activity during or prior to the induction and reinstatement of stress-induced behavioral deficits. Grm2, but not Grm3, mice exhibited reduced forced-swimming test immobility time and were resilient to developing inescapable shock (IES)-induced escape deficits. Grm2 mice were also resilient to developing corticosterone (CORT)-induced escape deficits and chronic social defeat stress-induced anhedonia. Pharmacological blockade of mGlu with the antagonist LY341495 during stress prevented the development of IES- and CORT-induced escape deficits, while activation with the agonist LY379268 increased susceptibility to escape deficits. Prophylactic treatment with the LY341495, both systemically and via microinjection into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), up to 7 days before IES, prevented both the induction of escape deficits and their reinstatement by brief re-exposure to IES up to 20 days after treatment. Overall, blockade of mGlu enhanced stress resilience and deletion of mGlu, but not mGlu, conferred a stress-resilient phenotype, indicating that prophylactic treatments reducing mGlu activity may protect against stress-induced changes underlying the development or recurrence of stress-induced disorders, including depression.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.
A type I G protein-coupled receptor mostly expressed post-synaptic pyramidal cells of the cortex and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A class of ligand-gated ion channel receptors that have specificity for GLUTAMATE. They are distinct from METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS which act through a G-protein-coupled mechanism.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE-containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a formyl group from L-GLUTAMATE to N-formimidoyl-L-glutamate and TETRAHYDROFOLATE. This enzyme may also catalyze formyl transfer from 5-formyltetrahydrofolate to L-GLUTAMATE. This enzyme was formerly categorized as EC 188.8.131.52.
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