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Alpha lipoic acid (α-LA) and its reduced form dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) have been historically considered as excellent anti-oxidants and oxidative stress scavengers. Upon oxidation with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-oxidants, α-LA may be reconstituted from DHLA and other reduced forms. Oxidative stress is one of the fundamental causes of functional degeneration, autophagy and apoptosis leading to cytotoxicity and loss of cell survival, often due to exposure to xenobiotics, pollutants, heavy metals, and other environmental and endogenous toxicants. α-LA and DHLA can react with these molecules to strengthen the primary antioxidant defense system during cell injury. The compound α-LA is suggested for heavy metal detoxification, in particular for supporting the mercury (Hg) detoxifying process. Mercury is one of the major environmental toxicant, particularly noxious even upon limited exposure. Oxidative stress pathways have been identified as a key upstream event for Hg-induced toxicity in humans and animals. However, very few existing drugs to date can successfully prevent or reduce Hg toxicity. Although several thiol-based chelators, such as British Anti-Lewisite (2,3-dimercaptopropanol, BAL), meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonate (DMPS), have shown promise for ameliorating Hg intoxication. In this review, the potential role of α-LA and DHLA in scavenging toxic metals and other xenobiotics is discussed, focusing especially on the mechanisms of actions of α-LA and DHLA as potential antioxidants towards Hg-induced toxicity.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of inorganic biochemistry
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Subjects will be screened with a 2 hour oral glucose tolerance test. After this screening visit, their insulin resistance will be measured. Subjects will then be given either alpha lipoi...
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Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 12-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of sterols in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP8B1gene, converts 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one to 7-alpha-12-alpha-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and is required in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS from cholesterol.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
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