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Recent work has identified the presence of humic-like substances (HULIS) in ambient fine particulate matter (PM) in Beijing, China and that residential coal combustion as well as biomass burning are significant contributors to its presence. These results were based on the characterization of emissions from representative stoves and modeling of the aerosol with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) chemical transport model. The CMAQ source apportionment estimated that residential coal and biofuel burning and secondary aerosol formation were important annual sources of ambient HULIS, contributing 47.1%, 15.1%, and 38.9%, respectively. In this study, chemical composition data including concentrations of water-soluble organic carbon and HULIS across four seasons during 2012-2013 were analyzed with positive matrix factorization (PMF) to provide a complementary source apportionment. The PMF results indicate that the identified sources were Traffic, Biomass Burning, Nitrate/Sulfate, Incineration, Sulfate, Coal Combustion/Ammonium Chloride, Residential Coal/Biofuel Combustion, and Road Dust/Soil with mass contributions (fractions) to PM of 12.35 (10.4%), 8.70 (8.9%), 24.51 (22.4%), 5.64 (7.2%), 25.14 (24.5%), 7.10 (6.2%), 14.18 (15.4%), and 5.33 μg/m (5.0%), respectively. The contributions to the observed HULIS concentrations were 0.63 (10.9%), 0.38 (6.4%), 0.07 (1.7%), 0.00 (0%), 1.12 (28.8%), 0.00 (0%), 1.50 (52.2%), and 0.01 μg/m (0.3%), respectively. These PMF modeling results were in reasonable agreement with the CMAQ values supporting the attribution of significant amounts of primary HULIS to residential coal and biofuel combustion. Currently, efforts are underway in China to replace solid fuel combustion for heating and cooking with natural gas and electricity by 2020. Thus, future studies should be able to see substantial reductions in both PM and HULIS in the near term future.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
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Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
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