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The impact of food antigens on intestinal homeostasis and immune function is poorly understood. Here, we explored the impact of dietary antigens on the phenotype and fate of intestinal T cells. Physiological uptake of dietary proteins generated a highly activated CD44+Helios+CD4+ T cell population predominantly in Peyer patches. These cells are distinct from regulatory T cells and develop independently of the microbiota. Alimentation with a protein-free, elemental diet led to an atrophic small intestine with low numbers of activated T cells, including Tfh cells and decreased amounts of intestinal IgA and IL-10. Food-activated CD44+Helios+CD4+ T cells in the Peyer patches are controlled by the immune checkpoint molecule PD-1. Blocking the PD-1 pathway rescued these T cells from apoptosis and triggered proinflammatory cytokine production, which in IL-10-deficient mice was associated with intestinal inflammation. In support of these findings, our study of patients with Crohn's disease revealed significantly reduced frequencies of apoptotic CD4+ T cells in Peyer patches as compared with healthy controls. These results suggest that apoptosis of diet-activated T cells is a hallmark of the healthy intestine.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Journal of clinical investigation
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A 33-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. It stimulates intestinal mucosal growth and decreased apoptosis of ENTEROCYTES. GLP-2 enhances gastrointestinal function and plays an important role in nutrient homeostasis.
A diet which is devoid of GLUTENS from WHEAT; BARLEY; RYE; and other wheat-related varieties. The diet is designed to reduce exposure to those proteins in gluten that trigger INFLAMMATION of the small intestinal mucosa in patients with CELIAC DISEASE.
A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.
A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal. This does not include DIET THERAPY, a specific diet prescribed in the treatment of a disease.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...