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Background The S-oxidation of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine has been reported previously to be a biomarker of disease susceptibility in Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In the present investigation, the original observations have been extended and confirmed. Methods Meta-analysis of previously published investigations into the S-oxidation polymorphism together with new subject data was evaluated. Results The incidence of the poor metaboliser phenotype (no urinary recovery of S-oxide metabolites) was found to be 3%-7% within healthy and non-neurological disease populations, whereas 38% of the Parkinson's disease subjects and 39% of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis group were phenotyped as poor metabolisers. The consequent odds risk ratio of developing Parkinson's disease was calculated to be 33.8 [95% confidence interval (CI), 13.3-86.1] and for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was 35.2 (95% CI, 13.0-85.1). Conclusions The possible involvement of the enzyme responsible for this S-oxidation biotransformation reaction, phenylalanine hydroxylase, should be further investigated to elucidate its potential role in the mechanism(s) of toxicity in susceptible individuals displaying these diseases. The "Janus hypothesis," possibly explaining why phenylalanine hydroxylase is a biomarker of neurodegenerative disease susceptibility, together with the general theme that this concept may apply to many other hitherto unsuspected enzyme systems, is presented.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Drug metabolism and personalized therapy
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A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of L-TYROSINE, dihydrobiopterin, and water from L-PHENYLALANINE, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen. Deficiency of this enzyme may cause PHENYLKETONURIAS and PHENYLKETONURIA, MATERNAL. EC 184.108.40.206.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
An enzyme that activates phenylalanine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 220.127.116.11.
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing as well as dispensing drugs and medicines. It is a health profession that links health sciences with chemical sciences and aims to ensure the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs. The scope of...
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