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Arctic-breeding geese acquire resources for egg production from overwintering and breeding grounds, where pollutant exposure may differ. We investigated the effect of migration strategy on pollutant occurrence of lipophilic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and protein-associated poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and mercury (Hg) in eggs of herbivorous barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) from an island colony on Svalbard. Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) in eggs and vegetation collected along the migration route were similar. Pollutant concentrations in eggs were low, reflecting their terrestrial diet (∑PCB = 1.23 ± 0.80 ng/g ww; ∑PFAS = 1.21 ± 2.97 ng/g ww; Hg = 20.17 ± 7.52 ng/g dw). PCB concentrations in eggs increased with later hatch date, independently of lipid content which also increased over time. Some females may remobilize and transfer more PCBs to their eggs, by delaying migration several weeks, relying on more polluted and stored resources, or being in poor body condition when arriving at the breeding grounds. PFAS and Hg occurrence in eggs did not change throughout the breeding season, suggesting migration has a greater effect on lipophilic pollutants. Pollutant exposure during offspring production in Arctic-breeding migrants may result in different profiles, with effects becoming more apparent with increasing trophic levels.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental science & technology
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The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)
Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
Assisted reproductive techniques where eggs, sperm, both eggs and sperm (double donation), or embryos from donors are used.
An effect usually, but not necessarily, beneficial that is attributable to an expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion.
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