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Liver fibrosis is a serious liver disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. The activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and the over production of extracellular matrix proteins are key features during disease progression. In this work, chondroitin sulfate nanomicelles (CSmicelles) were developed as a delivery system targeting HSCs for the treatment of liver fibrosis. CS-deoxycholic acid conjugates (CS-DOCA) was synthesized via amide bond formation. Next, retinoic acid (RA) and doxorubicin (DOX) were encapsulated into CSmicells to afford DOX+RA-CSmicelles co-delivery system. CSmicelles were selectively taken up in activated HSCs and hepatoma (HepG2) cells other than in normal hepatocytes (LO2), the internalization of which was proven to be mediated by CD44 receptors. Interestingly, DOX+RA-CSmicelles preferentially accumulated in Golgi apparatus, destroyed the Golgi structure, and ultimately downregulated collagen I production. Following tail-vein injection, DOX+RA-CSmicelles were delivered to the cirrhotic liver and showed synergistic antifibrosis effect in the CCl-induced fibrotic rat model. Further, immunofluorescence staining of dissected liver tissues revealed CD44-specific delivery of CS derivatives to activated HSCs. Together, our results demonstrate the great potential of CS based carrier systems for the targeted treatment of chronic liver diseases.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: ACS nano
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The purpose of this study is to examine the way the dietary supplements glucosamine and chondroitin are absorbed and distributed throughout the body.
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Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS and through early Golgi compartments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 126.96.36.199.
TRANSPORT VESICLES formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of COP (coat protein complex) proteins, either COPI or COPII. COPI coated vesicles transport backwards from the cisternae of the GOLGI APPARATUS to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH), while COPII coated vesicles transport forward from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus.
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