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Macrophages are the primary host cells for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), during its intracellular survival in humans. The pathogen has a remarkable capacity to survive within the hostile environment of macrophages. However, primary infection does not result in active TB disease in most individuals. The majority of individuals remain latently infected, wherein the bacteria are held in check by the host immune response. Nevertheless, such individuals can develop active TB later upon the decline in their immune status. In contrast, in a small fraction of infected individuals, the host immune response fails to control the growth of M. tuberculosis bacilli, and granulomatous TB develops progressively. Elucidating the molecular and phenotypic events that govern the outcome of the infection within macrophages is fundamental to understanding the key features of these cells that could be equally critical in infection control. The molecular details of the M. tuberculosis-macrophage interaction continue to be discerned, and emerging evidence suggests that macrophage population that participate in infection is heterogeneous. While the local environment and developmental origin could influence the phenotypic heterogeneity and functional plasticity of macrophages, M. tuberculosis has also been demonstrated to modulate the polarization of macrophages. In this review, we draw on work investigating specialized macrophage populations and their interactions with M. tuberculosis with respect to pathogenesis and specific immune responses. Understanding the mechanisms that control the repertoire of macrophage phenotypes and behaviors during infection may provide prospects for novel TB control strategies through modulation of immunobiological functions of macrophages.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of leukocyte biology
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The dormant form of TUBERCULOSIS where the person shows no obvious symptoms and no sign of the causative agent (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in the SPUTUM despite being positive for tuberculosis infection skin test.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
Tuberculosis of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (TUBERCULOSIS, MENINGEAL), most often caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and rarely by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The infection may be limited to the nervous system or coexist in other organs (e.g., TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY). The organism tends to seed the meninges causing a diffuse meningitis and leads to the formation of TUBERCULOMA, which may occur within the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal spaces. Tuberculous involvement of the vertebral column (TUBERCULOSIS, SPINAL) may result in nerve root or spinal cord compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-20)
Pathological conditions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM caused by infection of MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS. Tuberculosis involvement may include the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Over nine million new cases of TB, and nearly two million deaths from TB, are estimated to occur around the world every year, and new inf...