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Treating the lips to increase facial attractiveness and youthfulness is challenging when trying to consider ethnic differences in an increasingly more diverse society. Multiple injection techniques are currently available for treating lip contour and volume, but a validation in the cadaveric model under the aspects of safety has not been performed yet. The injection techniques presented in this study are based on the experience and personal selection of the authors. The authors have assessed, treated, and evaluated for more than 20 years patients from the Middle East and Central Europe. Cadaveric verification was performed for each of the presented techniques to identify the positioning of the injected product inside the lips and its relation to the superior/inferior labial arteries. The results of the anatomic analyses revealed that in 58.3% of the performed injections, the product was placed close to the superior/inferior labial arteries. In 60.0% of the cases, applications using a needle placed the injected product in endangered locations, whereas 57.1% of the cases using cannulas placed the product in endangered locations (i.e., in the vicinity of the superior/inferior labial arteries). This anatomic study revealed that injected material into the lips is frequently placed in close proximity to labial arteries representing a high risk for intra-arterial applications, leading to tissue loss (necrosis) and potential end-arterial embolism (potential blindness). Nevertheless, treatment of the lips should be a multistep approach focusing first on the far (upper and middle face) and close (labiomandibular and labiomental) perioral regions.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Facial plastic surgery : FPS
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Physicians who specialize in treating disorders of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM, especially diagnosing and treating diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.
A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the trigeminal nerve. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)
A NADP transhydrogenase subtype found in certain types of BACTERIA and mammalian MITOCHONDRIA. This transhydrogenase uses a mechanism that can transfer hydrogen to either side, A or B, of the NAD(+) or NADP(+) ring structure. In heart mitochondria, the enzyme is A-specific with respect to NAD(+) and B-specific with respect to NADP(+).
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
Secondary headache disorders attributed to a variety of cranial or cervical vascular disorders, such as BRAIN ISCHEMIA; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS.
Vascular relates to blood vessels (Oxford Medical Dictionary) and can be used to describe the supply of blood, a disease affecting the blood vessels or molecules associated with these structures. For example, <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->atherosclerosis ...