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Salmonella enterica represents an enterobacterial species including numerous serovars that cause infections at, or initiated at, the intestinal epithelium. Many serovars also act as facultative intracellular pathogens with a tropism for phagocytic cells. These bacteria not only survive in phagocytes but also undergo de facto replication therein. Phagocytes, through the activities of phagocyte NADPH-dependent oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase, are very proficient in converting molecular oxygen to reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS). These compounds represent highly efficient effectors of the innate immune defense. Salmonella is by no means resistant to these effectors, which may stand in contrast to the host niches chosen. To cope with this paradox, these bacteria rely on an array of detoxification and repair systems. Combination these systems allows for a high enough tolerance to ROS and RNS to enable establishment of infection. In addition, salmonella possesses protein factors that have the potential to dampen the infection-associated inflammation, which evidently results in a reduced exposure to ROS and RNS. This review attempts to summarize the activities and strategies by which salmonella tries to cope with ROS and RNS and how the bacterium can make use of these innate defense factors.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of innate immunity
The "self" has been implicated in the development of a range of psychological disorders. While a growing body of literature has emerged exploring the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPT...
Salmonellosis outbreaks associated with sprouted legumes have been a food safety concern for over two decades. Despite evidence that Salmonella enterica triggers biotic plant defense pathways, it has ...
What is the topic of this review? Within this review, the role of reactive oxygen species in cellular homeostasis, physiology and pathophysiology is discussed. What advances does it highlight? The rev...
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0203497.].
Excessive noise exposure could increase the production of reactive oxygen species in the cochlea, thus causing the risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Noise is commonly found in the industrial ...
The overall objective of this clinical study is to determine if smokers who switch from their usual high reactive oxygen and nitrous oxide species (ROS/NOS) products to a low ROS/NOS produ...
The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of inhaled apocynin on ROS (reactive oxygen species) and NOS (reactive nitrogen species) synthesis in 10 nonsmoking mild asthmatics. Effec...
Sepsis is life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Early during sepsis course, immature neutrophils could be found in the bloodstream and may...
Nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) mutations cause glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiencies through decreased detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in adreno...
Diabetic nephropathy has become the single most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease. On a molecular level, at least five major pathways have been implicated in glucose-mediated vasc...
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
An aseptic, inflammatory arthritis developing secondary to a primary extra-articular infection, most typically of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or UROGENITAL SYSTEM. The initiating trigger pathogens are usually SHIGELLA; SALMONELLA; YERSINIA; CAMPYLOBACTER; or CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Reactive arthritis is strongly associated with HLA-B27 ANTIGEN.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
A technique for causing a targeted loss of molecular function from REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES that are formed by the illumination of dyes placed in the immediate vicinity of the target molecule.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...
A diagnostic test is any kind of medical test performed to aid in the diagnosis or detection of disease. For example: to diagnose diseases to measure the progress or recovery from disease to confirm that a person is free from disease Clin...
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...