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Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and their processing enzymes have long-recognized roles in cardiac and skeletal muscle pathophysiology. Recently, tRNA fragments have emerged as a new class of non-coding RNAs involved in the regulation of cell function. In this review, we provide a synopsis of the molecular processes that regulate the biogenesis, post-transcriptional regulation and functional roles of tRNAs in cardiac and skeletal muscle. In addition, we list the (dys)regulated expression profiles and putative functional roles of tRNA-derived small RNAs in the heart and skeletal muscle. Finally, the technical challenges surrounding tRNA research are discussed alongside suggestions to advance research in this field. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte biology: new pathways of differentiation and regeneration edited by Marijke Brinkm, Marcus C. Schaub, and Christian Zuppinger.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular cell research
Adenosine deaminase acting on transfer RNA (ADAT) is an essential eukaryotic enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of adenosine to inosine at the first position of tRNA anticodons. Mammalian ADATs mod...
Myocardial infarction (MI) is accompanied with skeletal muscle abnormalities. The aims are to explore an optimal exercise mode to improve cardiac function and prevent skeletal muscle atrophy, and dete...
One of the most remarkable, but typically unremarked, aspects of the translation apparatus is the pleiotropic pliability of tRNA. This humble cloverleaf/L-shaped molecule must implement the first gene...
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Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.
An operation that uses stimulated latissimus dorsi muscle (SKELETAL MUSCLE VENTRICLE) to assist cardiac function. The latissimus dorsi muscle is mobilized from the chest wall and moved into the thorax through the bed of the resected 2nd or 3rd rib. The muscle is then wrapped around the left and right ventricles and stimulated to contract during cardiac systole by means of an implanted burst-stimulator. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Autologous skeletal muscle that is wrapped around the heart and electrically stimulated in order to provide mechanical heart assistance. The latissimus dorsi muscle is commonly used to form this ventricle that functions to independently augment cardiac performance by pumping in series with the heart.
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
Arthritis Fibromyalgia Gout Lupus Rheumatic Rheumatology is the medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and management of disease involving joints, tendons, muscles, ligaments and associated structures (Oxford Medical Diction...