tRNAs and tRNA fragments as modulators of cardiac and skeletal muscle function.

08:00 EDT 31st March 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "tRNAs and tRNA fragments as modulators of cardiac and skeletal muscle function."

Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and their processing enzymes have long-recognized roles in cardiac and skeletal muscle pathophysiology. Recently, tRNA fragments have emerged as a new class of non-coding RNAs involved in the regulation of cell function. In this review, we provide a synopsis of the molecular processes that regulate the biogenesis, post-transcriptional regulation and functional roles of tRNAs in cardiac and skeletal muscle. In addition, we list the (dys)regulated expression profiles and putative functional roles of tRNA-derived small RNAs in the heart and skeletal muscle. Finally, the technical challenges surrounding tRNA research are discussed alongside suggestions to advance research in this field. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte biology: new pathways of differentiation and regeneration edited by Marijke Brinkm, Marcus C. Schaub, and Christian Zuppinger.


Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular cell research
ISSN: 1879-2596


DeepDyve research library

PubMed Articles [15166 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

tRNA deamination by ADAT requires substrate-specific recognition mechanisms and can be inhibited by tRFs.

Adenosine deaminase acting on transfer RNA (ADAT) is an essential eukaryotic enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of adenosine to inosine at the first position of tRNA anticodons. Mammalian ADATs mod...

Effects of different types of exercise on skeletal muscle atrophy, antioxidant capacity and growth factors expression following myocardial infarction.

Myocardial infarction (MI) is accompanied with skeletal muscle abnormalities. The aims are to explore an optimal exercise mode to improve cardiac function and prevent skeletal muscle atrophy, and dete...

The role of tRNA in Establishing New Genetic Codes.

One of the most remarkable, but typically unremarked, aspects of the translation apparatus is the pleiotropic pliability of tRNA. This humble cloverleaf/L-shaped molecule must implement the first gene...

Mice lacking α-,β1- and β2-syntrophins exhibit diminished function and reduced dystrophin expression in both cardiac and skeletal muscle.

Syntrophins are a family of modular adaptor proteins that are part of the dystrophin protein complex, where they recruit and anchor a variety of signaling proteins. Previously we generated mice lackin...

The tRNA-associated dysregulation in diabetes mellitus.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder for human health and well-being. Deregulated glucose and lipid metabolism are the primary underlying manifestations associated with...

Clinical Trials [9806 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Safety of Autologous Muscle Fiber Fragments for Improved Function of Rotator Cuff Musculature Following Rotator Cuff Repair

In this study, a chest muscle sample (biopsy) will be taken and the muscle fibers will be removed from the sample and made into smaller strands or fragments. During this same procedure, th...

Clinical Trial Studying the Effects of Spironolactone on Heart and Skeletal Muscle Function in Chronic Alcoholics

Chronic alcoholics suffer from weak skeletal and cardiac muscle. The investigators have discovered a beneficial effect of spironolactone-treatment in that regard. Therefore, a double blind...

Cross-over Study on Effect of Lipid Lowering by Acipimox on Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Function

Accumulation of lipid in skeletal and cardiac muscle has been associated with insulin resistance and diabetic cardiomyopathy. In skeletal muscle, lipotoxic damage has been suggested to lea...

A Multi-center Study to Assess the Effects of BYM338 on Skeletal Muscle in Sarcopenic Adults

The purpose of this Proof of Concept study is to determine the effects of BYM338 on skeletal muscle volume, mass, and strength and patient function (gait speed) in non-demented elderly adu...

A Phase 2 Study to Evaluate the Impact of MTP-131 (Bendavia™) on Skeletal Muscle Function in Elderly

This study will be a Phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, enrolling 45 elderly subjects with previous evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction to evaluate whether the ...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.

An operation that uses stimulated latissimus dorsi muscle (SKELETAL MUSCLE VENTRICLE) to assist cardiac function. The latissimus dorsi muscle is mobilized from the chest wall and moved into the thorax through the bed of the resected 2nd or 3rd rib. The muscle is then wrapped around the left and right ventricles and stimulated to contract during cardiac systole by means of an implanted burst-stimulator. (Stedman, 26th ed)

Autologous skeletal muscle that is wrapped around the heart and electrically stimulated in order to provide mechanical heart assistance. The latissimus dorsi muscle is commonly used to form this ventricle that functions to independently augment cardiac performance by pumping in series with the heart.

One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.

Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.

Quick Search


DeepDyve research library

Relevant Topic

Arthritis Fibromyalgia Gout Lupus Rheumatic Rheumatology is the medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and management of disease involving joints, tendons, muscles, ligaments and associated structures (Oxford Medical Diction...

Searches Linking to this Article