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Physiological function and metabolic regulation are the most important outputs of circadian clock controls in mammals. Mitochondrial respiration and ROS production show rhythmic activity. Mitochondrial carriers, which are responsible for mitochondrial substance transfer, are vital for mitochondrial metabolism. Clock (Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput) is the first core circadian gene identified in mammalian animals. However, whether CLOCK protein can regulate mitochondrial functions via mitochondrial carriers is unclear. Here, we showed that CLOCK can bind to the mitochondrial carrier SLC25A10. For further analysis, we established a Slc25a10-Hepa1-6 cell line using CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing technology. Slc25a10-Hepa1-6 cells showed disordered glucose homeostasis, increased oxidative stress levels, and damaged electron transport chains. Next, using an immunoprecipitation assay, we found that amino acids 43-84 and 169-210 in SLC25A10 are key sites that respond to CLOCK binding. Finally, forced expression of wild-type SLC25A10 in Slc25a10-Hepa1-6 cells could compensate for the loss of SLC25A10; the decreased glucose metabolism, severe oxidative stress and damaged electron transport chain were recovered. In addition, a mutant Slc25a10 with changes in two key sites did not show a rescue effect. In conclusion, we identified a new protein-protein interaction mechanism in which CLOCK can directly regulate cell metabolism via the mitochondrial membrane transporter SLC25A10. Our study might provide some new insights into the relationship between circadian clock and mitochondrial metabolism.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular cell research
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A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that negatively regulates expression of ARNTL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and plays a role as a regulatory component of the circadian clock system. The Nr1d1 nuclear receptor expression is cyclically-regulated by a feedback loop involving its positive regulation by CLOCK PROTEIN; BMAL1 PROTEIN heterodimers and its negative regulation by CRYPTOCHROME and PERIOD PROTEINS.
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that contain intrinsic HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE activity and play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. Clock proteins combine with Arntl proteins to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation. This transcriptional activation also sets into motion a time-dependent feedback loop which in turn down-regulates the expression of clock proteins.
A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that positively regulates expression of ARNTL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and is a regulatory component of the circadian clock system. The protein also has a role in neuron cell survival and differentiation in that loss of function mutations of its gene result in the mouse phenotype referred to as the STAGGERER MOUSE.
A mitochondrial uncoupling protein that is expressed in many tissues and exhibits the greatest expression in SKELETAL MUSCLE. It regulates mitochondrial ATP production and the generation of REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES.