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Although recent evidence has demonstrated the potent effect of physical exercise to increase the efficacy of cognitive training, the neural mechanisms underlying this causal relationship remain unclear. Here, we used multiscale entropy (MSE) of electroencephalography (EEG)-a measure of brain signal complexity-to address this issue. Young males were randomly assigned to either a 20-day dual n-back training following aerobic exercise or the same training regimen following a reading. A feature binding working memory task with concurrent EEG recording was used to test for transfer effects. Although results revealed weak-to-moderate evidence for exercise-induced facilitation on cognitive training, the combination of cognitive training with exercise resulted in greater transfer gains on conditions involving greater attentional demanding, together with greater increases in cognitive modulation on MSE, compared with the reading condition. Overall, our findings suggest that the addition of antecedent physical exercise to brain training regimen could enable wider, more robust improvements.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biological psychology
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Controlled physical activity, more strenuous than at rest, which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used. The intensity of exercise is often graded, using criteria such as rate of work done, oxygen consumption, and heart rate.
Alternating sets of exercise that work out different muscle groups and that also alternate between aerobic and anaerobic exercises, which, when combined together, offer an overall program to improve strength, stamina, balance, or functioning.
The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.
Instrumentation consisting of hardware and software that communicates with the BRAIN. The hardware component of the interface records brain signals, while the software component analyzes the signals and converts them into a command that controls a device or sends a feedback signal to the brain.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activa