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Histone H3K9 Methyltransferase G9a in Oocytes Is Essential for Preimplantation Development but Dispensable for CG Methylation Protection.

08:00 EDT 2nd April 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Histone H3K9 Methyltransferase G9a in Oocytes Is Essential for Preimplantation Development but Dispensable for CG Methylation Protection."

Mammalian histone methyltransferase G9a (also called EHMT2) deposits H3K9me2 on chromatin and is essential for postimplantation development. However, its role in oogenesis and preimplantation development remains poorly understood. We show that H3K9me2-enriched chromatin domains in mouse oocytes are generally depleted of CG methylation, contrasting with their association in embryonic stem and somatic cells. Oocyte-specific disruption of G9a results in reduced H3K9me2 enrichment and impaired reorganization of heterochromatin in oocytes, but only a modest reduction in CG methylation is detected. Furthermore, in both oocytes and 2-cell embryos, G9a depletion has limited impact on the expression of genes and retrotransposons. Although their CG methylation is minimally affected, preimplantation embryos derived from such oocytes show abnormal chromosome segregation and frequent developmental arrest. Our findings illuminate the functional importance of G9a independent of CG methylation in preimplantation development and call into question the proposed role for H3K9me2 in CG methylation protection in zygotes.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Cell reports
ISSN: 2211-1247
Pages: 282-293.e4

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).

A histone-lysine N-methyltransferase and catalytic subunit of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2. It methylates LYSINE 9 (H3K9me) and LYSINE 27 (H3K27me) of HISTONE H3, leading to transcriptional repression of the affected target gene. EZH2 also methylates non-histone proteins such as GATA4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and the nuclear receptor RORA. It regulates CIRCADIAN CLOCKS via histone methylation at the PROMOTER REGIONS of the circadian genes and its repressive activity is also important for the identity and differentiation of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.

A class II histone deacetylase that removes acetyl groups from N-terminal LYSINES of HISTONE H2A; HISTONE H2B; HISTONE H3; and HISTONE H4. It plays a critical role in EPIGENETIC REPRESSION and regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, as well as CELL MOTILITY through deacetylation of TUBULIN. It also targets misfolded proteins for clearance by AUTOPHAGY when MOLECULAR CHAPERONE-mediated folding is overwhelmed.

A DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase that contains a central CxxC type zinc finger motif. It binds poly(ADP)-ribose and its expression is regulated by POLY (ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASE-1. DNMT1 methylates CpG residues, with a preference for hemimethylated DNA, and associates with DNA replication sites in S PHASE to maintain the methylation pattern in the newly synthesized strand, which is essential for EPIGENETIC PROCESSES. It also associates with CHROMATIN during G2 PHASE and MITOSIS to maintain DNA methylation independently of replication. It is responsible for maintaining methylation patterns established in development; mutations in the DNMT1 gene are associated with HEREDITARY SENSORY NEUROPATHY TYPE 1 class E.

Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.

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