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The overwhelming body of research on regulatory lymphocytes has focused on CD4 CD25 Foxp3 T cells (regulatory T cells); however, the last 5 years have witnessed inspiring progress in our understanding of regulatory B cells, regulatory CD8 T cells, regulatory γδ cells, and, more recently, regulatory innate lymphoid cells(ILCregs). This review focuses on these so-called noncanonical regulatory cell subsets. We primarily survey existing information on the phenotype, function, sustaining factors, and clinical value of the 4 best-characterized non-CD4 Foxp3 T regulatory cells. We then take a brief journey into the advances and challenges associated with next-generation sequencing technologies and the application of sequencing to the study of noncanonical regulatory cell subsets.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of leukocyte biology
Due to their immunoregulatory properties, several specialized cell subsets, including regulatory T (Treg), invariant natural killer T (iNKT) and regulatory B (Breg) cells, are involved in the pathogen...
CD4 T "helper" cells are key orchestrators of adaptive immune responses. Upon activation, naïve CD4 T cells are capable of differentiating into a number of effector subsets that perform distinct immu...
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare autoimmune disease that is characterized by fibrosis, inflammation, and vasculopathy of the skin and internal organs. The etiopathogenesis of SSc remains unclear. Ho...
IRFs are a family of transcription factors with pleiotropic functions in immune cells, including in generation of subsets of DCs and macrophages and B cell maturation . IRF1 deficiency results in s...
This study examines the relationship between regulatory B (Breg) and T (Treg) compartments, which play crucial roles in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the context of HIV. Using flow cytometr...
It is assumed that gut inflammation and lesions characterizing flares of Crohn's disease (CD) result from an aberrant T-cell mediated immune responses characterized by a complex balance be...
HIV induced altered representation and function of regulatory T cell subsets (NKT and Treg cells) impair the protective T cell response against M.tuberculosis and disrupts LTBI, thus facil...
To study the effects of T cell in peripheral blood of patients with RA undergoing selective B cell depletion have not been studied. We analyze the B and T cell subsets in patients with act...
The cause of Inflammatory Bowl Disease (IBD) is not known, but studies from patients with IBD have found that these patients make unusually strong immune responses to their own intestinal ...
This is a retrospective, single-center, non-randomized, non-controlled study. This study aims to explore the effect of T-lymphocyte subsets changes in immunologic reconstitution and progno...
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.
A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.
An interferon regulatory factor that is expressed constitutively and undergoes POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION following viral infection. PHOSPHORYLATION of IRF-3 causes the protein to be translocated from the CYTOPLASM to CELL NUCLEUS where it binds DNA, and activates transcription.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. During DNA sequencing, the bases of a small fragment of DNA are sequentially identified from signals emitted as each fragment is re-synthesized from a ...