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In proton therapy, patients benefit from the precise deposition of the dose in the tumor volume due to the interaction of charged particles with matter. Currently, the determination of the beam range in the patient's body during the treatment is not a clinical standard. This lack causes broad safety margins, which limits the potential of proton therapy. To overcome this obstacle, different methods are under investigation aiming at the verification of the proton range in real time. One approach is the Prompt Gamma-ray Timing (PGT) method, where the range of the primary protons is derived from the time resolved emission profiles (PGT spectra) of promptly emitted gamma rays, which are produced along the particle track in the tissue. After verifying this novel technique in an experimental environment but far away from treatment conditions, the translation of PGT into clinical practice is intended. Therefore, new hardware was extensively tested and characterized in a clinical-like scenario using short irradiation times of 70ms and clinical beam currents of 2nA. Experiments were carried out in the treatment room of the University Proton Therapy Dresden. A pencil beam scanning plan was delivered to a target without and with embedded cylindrical air cavities of down to 5mm thickness. The induced range shifts of the proton beam due to the material variation could be identified from the corresponding PGT spectra, comprising events collected during the delivery of a whole layer. Additionally, an assignment of the PGT data to the individual pencil beam spots allowed a spot-wise analysis of the variation of the PGT distribution mean and width indicating range shifts induced by the different air cavities. Furthermore, the paper presents a comprehensive software framework which standardizes future PGT analysis methods and correction algorithms for technical limitations that have been encountered in the presented experiments.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Physics in medicine and biology
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Data processing largely performed by automatic means.
Signal and data processing method that uses decomposition of wavelets to approximate, estimate, or compress signals with finite time and frequency domains. It represents a signal or data in terms of a fast decaying wavelet series from the original prototype wavelet, called the mother wavelet. This mathematical algorithm has been adopted widely in biomedical disciplines for data and signal processing in noise removal and audio/image compression (e.g., EEG and MRI).
Observation and aquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
Data processing using paper cards with punched holes that represent data.