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Vesicular nanosystems are versatile and they are able to encapsulate actives with different solubilities, such as lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds. The most well-known vesicular nanosystems are liposomes and niosomes, the last one is formed by non-ionic surfactants. In the present work, it was developed photoprotective niosomes containing sunscreens (octyl methoxycinnamate, diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate and phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid), non-ionic surfactants, cholesterol and stearylamine (positive-charged lipid). Studies based in dynamic light scattering techniques (DLS), entrapment efficiency and morphology by TEM were performed to characterize the niosomes. In addition, rheology, pH, in vitro SPF efficacy and toxicity and in vivo and in vitro safety were determined for the niosome formulations F-N1 and F-N2. The mean size of the N1 and N2 was 168 ± 5 nm and 192 ± 8 nm, respectively, and their morphology were spherical, unilamellar, with an entrapment efficiency of more than 45% for each sunscreen. Both formulations, F-N1 and F-N2 presented characteristic of pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluids, showing declining viscosity with increasing shear rate applied. SPF values were considered satisfactory, 34 ± 8 for formulation F-N1 and 34 ± 5 for F-N2. The formulations did not presented toxicity when tested in macrophages and pH was compatible with skin, which minimizes allergies. In vitro safety assay showed lipophilic sunscreens' greater affinity for the epidermis, since this layer contains natural lipids. In vivo safety assay suggests that the increased skin retention of N2 is directly correlated with the positive charge of stearylamine. Stable photoprotective niosomes were obtained and showed to be promising nanostructures to be used against solar radiation.
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Work that is the report of a pre-planned, usually controlled, clinical study of the safety and efficacy of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques based on a small number of healthy persons and conducted over the period of about a year in either the United States or a foreign country.
Work that is a report of a pre-planned, usually controlled, clinical study of the safety and efficacy of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques based on several hundred volunteers, including a limited number of patients, and conducted over a period of about two years in either the United States or a foreign country.
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, practicability, etc., of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
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