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The central nervous system (CNS) has a highly complex biophysical and biochemical environment. Despite decades of intensive research, it is still an enormous challenge to restore its functions and regenerate lost or damaged CNS tissues. Current treatment strategies remain sub-optimal because of (1) the hostile microenvironment created post CNS injury, and (2) insufficient understanding of the pathophysiology of acute and chronic CNS diseases. Two-dimensional (2D) in vitro models have provided tremendous insights into a wide range of cellular interactions. However, they fail to recapitulate the complex cellular, topographical, biochemical, and mechanical stimuli found within the natural three-dimensional (3D) CNS. Also, the growing ethical needs to use fewer animals for research further necessitates 3D in vitro models to mimic all or part of the CNS. In this review, we critically appraise the status quo and design considerations of 3D in vitro neural disease and injury models that resemble in vivo conditions. This review mainly focuses on the most recent advances in tissue engineering techniques such as microfluidics, organs-on-a-chip and stem cell technology. Furthermore, we review recent models aiming to elucidate the underlying pathophysiology of CNS diseases. If armed with deeper understanding, it will be possible to develop high-throughput drug screening platforms and new treatments for CNS diseases and injuries.
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From the beginning, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology was touted as a path to improve our understanding of disease biology and enable drug discovery. Advances in iPSC culture, genome eng...
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Three-dimensional (3D) models are acquiring importance in cancer research due to their ability to mimic multiple features of the tumor microenvironment more accurately than standard monolayer two-dime...
Engineering heterogeneous micro-mechano-microenvironments of extracellular matrix is of great interest in tissue engineering, but spatial control over mechanical heterogeneity in three dimensions is s...
Bridging the gap between findings in preclinical 2D cell culture models and in vivo tissue cultures has been challenging; the simple microenvironment of 2D monolayer culture systems may not capture th...
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The aim of this study is to perform the bone tissue engineering to reconstruct the alveolar bone defect in cleft lip and palate patients using mesenchymal stem cells from deciduous dental ...
Methods and techniques used to modify or select cells and develop conditions for growing cells for biosynthetic production of molecules (METABOLIC ENGINEERING), for generation of tissue structures and organs in vitro (TISSUE ENGINEERING), or for other BIOENGINEERING research objectives.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
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Track and monitor developments in stem cell research and commercial development. Follow the tabs above to read the latest global news, research, clinical trials on stem cells and follow companies active in the stem cell industry. BioPort...