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Papillary thyroid carcinoma behavior: clues in the tumor microenvironment.

08:00 EDT 1st April 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Papillary thyroid carcinoma behavior: clues in the tumor microenvironment."

The prevalence of thyroid carcinoma is increasing and represents the most common endocrine malignancy, with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) being the most frequent subtype. The genetic alterations identified in PTCs fail to distinguish tumors with different clinical behaviors, such as extra-thyroidal extension and lymph node metastasis. We hypothesize that the immune microenvironment may play a critical role in tumor invasion and metastasis. Computational immunogenomic analysis was performed on 568 PTC samples in The Cancer Genome Atlas using both CIBERSORT and TIMER deconvolution analytic tools for characterizing immune cell composition. Immune cell infiltrates were correlated with histologic type, mutational type, tumor pathologic T stage, and lymph node N stage. Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly associated with more locally advanced tumor T stage [T3/T4, Odds Ratio (OR)=2.6, Confidence Interval (CI)=1.4-4.5, p=5.4 x 10-4]. Increased dendritic cells (OR=3.4, CI=1.9-6.3, p=5.5 x 10-5) and neutrophils (OR=10.5, CI=2.7-44, p=8.7 x 10-4) significantly correlate with lymph node metastasis. In addition, dendritic cells positively correlate with tall cell morphology (OR=4.5, CI=1.6-13, p=4.9 x10-3) and neutrophils negatively correlate with follicular morphology (OR=1.3 x 10-3, CI=5.3 x 10-5-0.031, p=4.1 x 10-5). TIDE analysis indicates an immune-exclusive phenotype that may be mediated by increased galectin-3 found in PTCs. Thus, characterization of the PTC immune microenvironment using two computational platforms shows that specific immune cells correlate with mutational type, histologic type, local tumor extent, and lymph node metastasis. Immunologic evaluation of PTCs may provide a better indication of biologic behavior, resulting in the improved diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Endocrine-related cancer
ISSN: 1479-6821
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)

An aggressive THYROID GLAND malignancy which generally occurs in IODINE-deficient areas in people with previous thyroid pathology such as GOITER. It is associated with CELL DEDIFFERENTIATION of THYROID CARCINOMA (e.g., FOLLICULAR THYROID CARCINOMA; PAPILLARY THYROID CANCER). Typical initial presentation is a rapidly growing neck mass which upon metastasis is associated with DYSPHAGIA; NECK PAIN; bone pain; DYSPNEA; and NEUROLOGIC DEFICITS.

A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.

A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.

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