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The traditional healthcare system is at the doorstep for entering into the arena of molecular medicine. The enormous knowledge and ongoing research have now been able to demonstrate methodologies that can alter DNA coding. The techniques used to edit or change the genome evolved from the earlier attempts like nuclease technologies, homing endonucleases, and certain chemical methods. Molecular techniques like meganuclease, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) initially emerged as genome-editing technologies. These initial technologies suffer from lower specificity due to their off-targets side effects. Moreover, from biotechnology's perspective, the main obstacle was to develop simple but effective delivery methods for host cell entry. Later, small RNAs, including microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA), have been widely adopted in the research laboratories to replace lab animals and cell lines. The latest discovery of CRISPR/Cas9 technology seems more encouraging by providing better efficiency, feasibility, and multi-role clinical application. This later biotechnology seem to take genome-engineering techniques to the next level of molecular engineering. This review generally discusses the various gene-editing technologies in terms of the mechanisms of action, advantages, and side effects.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Molecular therapy. Nucleic acids
Genome editing includes various edits of the genome, such as short insertions and deletions, substitutions, and chromosomal rearrangements including inversions, duplications, and translocations. These...
The emergence of genome editing technologies can be regarded as one of the most groundbreaking revolutions in the history of science. Modern genome editing allows the introduction of precise mutations...
Targeted genome editing is an advanced technique that enables precise modification of the nucleic acid sequences in a genome. Genome editing is typically performed using tools, such as molecular sciss...
The CRISPR-Cas9 system has been widely adopted in genome editing. By changing the 20 bp guide sequence, it can easily edit any sequence adjacent to a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) in a genome. Mul...
Marchantia polymorpha is one of the model species of basal land plants. Although CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing has already been demonstrated for this plant, the efficiency was too low to apply to f...
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Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports research into the mapping of the human genome and other organism genomes. The National Center for Human Genome Research was established in 1989 and re-named the National Human Genome Research Institute in 1997.
Techniques to determine the entire sequence of the GENOME of an organism or individual.
The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.
Genetic engineering techniques that involve DNA REPAIR mechanisms for incorporating site-specific modifications into a cell's genome.
The parts of a GENOME sequence that are involved with the different functions or properties of genomes as a whole as opposed to those of individual GENES.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
Health care (or healthcare) is the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans. Health care is delivered by practitioners in medicine, chiropractic, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, a...