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Unraveling sorption mechanisms of lead (Pb) to silicon (Si)-rich biochar at molecular scale in aqueous solution are essential for the effective application of the biochars to the remediation of Pb and other metal(loid)s pollution in the environment. Thus, this study investigated the contributions of phytoliths and other compounds to the Pb sorption on Si-rich coconut fiber biochar (CFB500) and the corresponding sorption mechanisms using spectroscopic techniques, including the micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The μ-XRF and XAFS results showed that K, Ca, Cu, Mn, and Fe were released and significantly related to Pb in Pb-loaded CFB500; four major Pb species were formed with similar structures to lead carboxylate (e.g., Pb(CHO)), Pb(PO), PbSiO, and PbCO. On phytoliths in CFB500, Pb ions were mainly sorbed on the sites of silicate with a structure similar to PbSiO. The contribution of binding sites for Pb sorption was ascribed to the outer-wall of carbon skeleton of CFB500, which was stronger than that provided by the mineral oxide aggregate and phytoliths on CFB500. Organic carbon functional groups, inorganic carbonates, silicates and phosphates on CFB500 mostly dominated the sorption sites for Pb. Our results suggest that CFB500 was a promising material for the remediation of Pb-contaminated aqueous environments (e.g., wastewater).
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
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A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight 28.09.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
Inorganic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Radiology is the branch of medicine that studies imaging of the body; X-ray (basic, angiography, barium swallows), ultrasound, MRI, CT and PET. These imaging techniques can be used to diagnose, but also to treat a range of conditions, by allowing visuali...