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Green infrastructure (GI) in urban areas may be adopted as a passive control system to reduce air pollutant concentrations. However, current dispersion models offer limited modelling options to evaluate its impact on ambient pollutant concentrations. The scope of this review revolves around the following question: how can GI be considered in readily available dispersion models to allow evaluation of its impacts on pollutant concentrations and health risk assessment? We examined the published literature on the parameterisation of deposition velocities and datasets for both particulate matter and gaseous pollutants that are required for deposition schemes. We evaluated the limitations of different air pollution dispersion models at two spatial scales - microscale (i.e. 10-500 m) and macroscale (i.e. 5-100 km) - in considering the effects of GI on air pollutant concentrations and exposure alteration. We conclude that the deposition schemes that represent GI impacts in detail are complex, resource-intensive, and involve an abundant volume of input data. An appropriate handling of GI characteristics (such as aerodynamic effect, deposition of air pollutants and surface roughness) in dispersion models is necessary for understanding the mechanism of air pollutant concentrations simulation in presence of GI at different spatial scales. The impacts of GI on air pollutant concentrations and health risk assessment (e.g., mortality, morbidity) are partly explored. The i-Tree tool with the BenMap model has been used to estimate the health outcomes of annually-averaged air pollutant removed by deposition over GI canopies at the macroscale. However, studies relating air pollution health risk assessments due to GI-related changes in short-term exposure, via pollutant concentrations redistribution at the microscale and enhanced atmospheric pollutant dilution by increased surface roughness at the macroscale, along with deposition, are rare. Suitable treatments of all physical and chemical processes in coupled dispersion-deposition models and assessments against real-world scenarios are vital for health risk assessments.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
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Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.
Algae of the division Chlorophyta, in which the green pigment of CHLOROPHYLL is not masked by other pigments. Green algae have over 7000 species and live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater. They are more closely related to the green vascular land PLANTS than any other group of algae.
A phylum of green plants comprising CHAROPHYCEAE (streptophyte green algae) and EMBRYOPHYTA (land plants).
A monophyletic group of green plants that includes all land plants (EMBRYOPHYTA) and all green algae (CHLOROPHYTA and STREPTOPHYTA).
An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.