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Oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of granulosa cells (GCs) is believed to be an important cause of follicular atresia. Our previous work showed that the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (also known as JNK) might promote apoptosis in GCs during oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the upstream signaling required for JNK-mediated GCs apoptosis during oxidative stress. Since PKCδ and ASK1 have been suggested to regulate JNK activity in some types of cells, we hypothesized that PKCδ and ASK1 might contribute to JNK-dependent apoptosis in GCs suffering oxidative stimulation. To test this assumption, porcine GCs obtained from healthy follicles were treated with HO alone, or together with inhibitors against PKCδ and JNK, and then collected for cell viability assay, TUNEL staining, immunoprecipitation, western blotting, or JNK activity detection in vitro. The current results showed that the cell viability loss, DNA fragmentation, morphological shrinkage, and nuclear condensation in HO-treated porcine GCs was correlated with enhanced activation of JNK. Although ASK1 was supposed to be a JNK activator, we found no definite role of ASK1 in JNK-induced GCs apoptosis during oxidative stress. Further investigations revealed that HO-mediated PKCδ activation was required for the apoptotic death of porcine GCs. Particularly, the pro-apoptotic effects of PKCδ on porcine GCs might be achieved by activating the mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, we found that p-PKCδ acts as an upstream activator of JNK in HO-treated porcine GCs. However, JNK has no regulatory effect on PKCδ activity. Taken together, our findings provided a novel model of GCs apoptosis involving the activation of PKCδ/JNK/mitochondrial apoptosis axis during oxidative stress.
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A forkhead box transcription factor and transcriptional activator which triggers type 1 programmed cell death (APOPTOSIS) in the absence of APOPTOSIS INHIBITING PROTEINS, including neuronal cell death induced by OXIDATIVE STRESS. It recognizes and binds to the DNA sequence 5'-(AG)TAAA(TC)A-3' and also functions in post-transcriptional regulation of the c-MYC PROTO-ONCOGENE.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
A naturally occurring phenolic acid which is a carcinogenic inhibitor. It has also been shown to prevent paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats. (From J Chromatogr A 1996;741(2):223-31; Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996;60(5):765-68).
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