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The Piwi pathway is a conserved gene regulatory mechanism comprised of Piwi-like proteins and Piwi-interacting RNAs, which modulates gene expression via RNA interference and through interaction with epigenetic mechanisms. The mammalian Piwi pathway has been defined by its role in transposon control during spermatogenesis; however, despite an increasing number of studies demonstrating its expression in the nervous system, relatively little is known about its function in neurons or potential contribution to behavioural regulation. We have discovered that all three Piwi-like genes are expressed in the adult mouse brain, and that viral-mediated knockdown of the Piwi-like genes Piwil1 and Piwil2 in the dorsal hippocampus leads to enhanced contextual fear memory without affecting generalised anxiety. These results implicate the Piwi pathway in behavioural regulation in the adult mammalian brain, likely through modulation of plasticity-related gene expression.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Neurobiology of learning and memory
Debilitating and persistent fear memories can rapidly form in humans following exposure to traumatic events. Fear memories can also be generated and studied in animals via Pavlovian fear conditioning....
Fear conditioning and extinction is a useful tool for understanding the pathogenesis of fear-related disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and for developing treatments for them. T...
The Medial Habenular (MHb) and the Lateral Habenular nuclei are 2 main parts of the habenular complex (Hb). Recent studies showed that MHb plays an important role in memory, and in the expression of E...
One-trial contextual fear conditioning in laboratory mice results in a fear memory which is relatively specific to the original conditioning context shortly after conditioning but becomes more unspeci...
Clarifying learning-induced synaptic plasticity in hippocampal circuits is critical for understanding hippocampal mechanisms of memory acquisition and storage. Many in vitro studies have demonstrated ...
OBJECTIVES: I. Evaluate whether chronic hypercortisolemia is specifically toxic to hippocampal cells and causes structural reduction of hippocampal volume in patients with Cushing's syndr...
The study aimed to investigate the memory preservation and neurocognitive function protection of hippocampal avoidance whole brain radiotherapy (HA-WBRT) among people who speak Mandarin Ch...
The purpose of this study is to use brain imaging technology to investigate brain changes in people exposed to predictable versus unpredictable unpleasant stimuli. Unpleasant events that c...
Cushing's disease is a state of chronic endogenous glucocorticoid excess. Cushing's disease is responsible for increased morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have pinpointed the frequen...
The purpose of this study is to examine how a part of the brain called the hippocampus contributes to memory changes that occur with aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Memory problems ar...
The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.
Type of declarative memory, consisting of personal memory in contrast to general knowledge.
A curved elevation of gray matter extending the entire length of the floor of the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle. The hippocampus, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.
A neuropsychological test designed to assess different memory functions. It may incorporate an optional cognitive exam (Brief Cognitive Status Exam) that helps to assess memory related cognitive function.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...
The process of gene expression is used by eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and viruses to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-tran...