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The purpose of this study was to assess whether cationic nanoliposomes could address tumor vaccines to dendritic cells in the lungs in vivo. Nanoliposomes were prepared using a cationic lipid, dimethylaminoethanecarbamoyl-cholesterol (DC-cholesterol) or dioleoyltrimethylammoniumpropane (DOTAP), and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), the most abundant phospholipid in lung surfactant. The liposomes presented a size below 175 nm and they effectively entrapped tumor antigens, an oligodeoxynucletotide containing CpG motifs (CpG) and the fluorescent dye calcein used as a tracer. Although the liposomes could permanently entrap a large fraction of the actives, they could not sustain their release in vitro. Liposomes made of DOTAP were safe to respiratory cells in vitro while liposomes composed of DC-cholesterol were cytotoxic. DOTAP nanoliposomes were mainly taken up by alveolar macrophages following delivery to the lungs in mice. Few dendritic cells took up the liposomes and interstitial macrophages did not take up liposomal calcein more than they took up soluble calcein. Stimulation of the innate immune system using liposomal CpG strongly enhanced uptake of calcein liposomes by all phagocytes in the lungs. Although a small percentage of dendritic cells took up the nanoliposomes, alveolar macrophages represented a major barrier to dendritic cells access in the lungs.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Molecular pharmaceutics
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The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A PULMONARY ALVEOLI-filling disease, characterized by dense phospholipoproteinaceous deposits in the alveoli, cough, and DYSPNEA. This disease is often related to, congenital or acquired, impaired processing of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS by alveolar macrophages, a process dependent on GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR.
One of several basic proteins released from EOSINOPHIL cytoplasmic granules. Eosinophil cationic protein is a 21-kDa cytotoxic peptide with a pI of 10.9. Although eosinophil cationic protein is considered a member of the RNAse A superfamily of proteins, it has only limited RNAse activity.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
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