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Palmitoylation by multiple DHHC enzymes enhances dopamine transporter function and stability.

08:00 EDT 9th April 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Palmitoylation by multiple DHHC enzymes enhances dopamine transporter function and stability."

The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a plasma membrane protein that mediates the reuptake of extracellular dopamine (DA) and controls the spatiotemporal dynamics of dopaminergic neurotransmission. The transporter is subject to fine control that tailors clearance of transmitter to physiological demands, and dysregulation of reuptake induced by psychostimulant drugs, transporter polymorphisms, and signaling defects may impact transmitter tone in disease states. We previously demonstrated that DAT undergoes complex regulation by palmitoylation, with acute inhibition of the modification leading to rapid reduction of transport activity, and sustained inhibition of the modification leading to transporter degradation and reduced expression. Here, to examine mechanisms and outcomes related to increased modification, we co-expressed DAT with palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs), also known as DHHC enzymes, which catalyze palmitate addition to proteins. Of twelve PATs tested, DAT palmitoylation was stimulated by DHHC2, DHHC3, DHHC8, DHHC15, and DHHC17, with others having no effect. Increased modification was localized to previously identified palmitoylation site Cys580 and resulted in upregulation of transport kinetics and elevated transporter expression mediated by reduced degradation. These findings confirm palmitoylation as a regulator of multiple DAT properties crucial for appropriate DA homeostasis and identify several potential PAT pathways linked to these effects. Defects in palmitoylation processes thus represent possible mechanisms of transport imbalances in DA disorders.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: ACS chemical neuroscience
ISSN: 1948-7193
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Organic cation transporter consisting of twelve transmembrane domains and expressed primarily in the kidney. It transports a wide range of metabolites, drugs, and neurotransmitters from the blood to the KIDNEY TUBULES, including DOPAMINE; SEROTONIN; CHOLINE; and CISPLATIN.

Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.

A subfamily of transmembrane proteins from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that are closely related in sequence to ATP-BINDING CASSETTE, SUB-FAMILY B, MEMBER 1. When overexpressed, they function as ATP-dependent efflux pumps able to extrude lipophilic drugs, especially ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, from cells causing multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although ATP BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTER, SUB-FAMILY B share functional similarities to MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS they are two distinct subclasses of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS, and have little sequence homology.

The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.

Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.

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