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Autologous chondrocyte implantation is a promising therapy for the treatment of the articular cartilage defects. Recently, we have developed a three-dimensional chondrocyte construct manufactured with a collagen gel/sponge scaffold and cyclic hydrostatic pressure. However, the roles of various mechanical stresses, specifically hydrostatic pressure and deviatoric stress, as well as post-stress loading, were unclear on metabolic function in chondrocytes. We hypothesized that hydrostatic pressure and deviatoric stresses each alter individual metabolic characteristics of chondrocytes. We embedded human articular chondrocytes within an agarose hydrogel and applied hydrostatic pressure and/or deviatoric stress individually or simultaneously for four days. Subsequently, we kept the cell constructs without stress for an additional three days. With hydrostatic pressure and/or deviatoric stress, more cells proliferated significantly than no stress (p<0.05) and more cells proliferated near the inner side of the construct than the outer (p<0.05). Cartilage specific aggrecan core protein and collagen type-II were upregulated significantly after off-loading hydrostatic pressure alone at day seven (p< 0.05). On the other hand, these molecules were upregulated significantly immediately after deviatoric stress alone and combined with hydrostatic pressure at day four (p<0.05). Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 was upregulated significantly after off-loading hydrostatic pressure alone and combined deviatoric stress at day seven (p<0.05). Metalloproteinnase-13 was upregulated significantly with deviatoric stress at day four (p<0.05) and combined with hydrostatic pressure at day four. These results suggest that metabolic functions are regulated by the combination of hydrostatic pressure and deviatoric stress as well as by the timing of stress loading.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine
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The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
Skin breakdown or ulceration caused by varicose veins in which there is too much hydrostatic pressure in the superficial venous system of the leg. Venous hypertension leads to increased pressure in the capillary bed, transudation of fluid and proteins into the interstitial space, altering blood flow and supply of nutrients to the skin and subcutaneous tissues, and eventual ulceration.
External decompression applied to the lower body. It is used to study orthostatic intolerance and the effects of gravitation and acceleration, to produce simulated hemorrhage in physiologic research, to assess cardiovascular function, and to reduce abdominal stress during childbirth.
A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.
The pressure within the CARDIAC ATRIUM. It can be measured directly by using a pressure catheter (see HEART CATHETERIZATION). It can be also estimated using various imaging techniques or other pressure readings such as PULMONARY CAPILLARY WEDGE PRESSURE (an estimate of left atrial pressure) and CENTRAL VENOUS PRESSURE (an estimate of right atrial pressure).
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