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Dioecy has evolved recently and independently from cosexual populations in many angiosperm lineages, providing opportunities to understand the evolutionary process underlying this transition. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is a dioecious plant with homomorphic sex chromosomes (XY). Although most of the spinach Y chromosome recombines with the X chromosome, a region around the male-determining locus on Y does not recombine with its X counterpart, suggesting that this region might be related to the evolution of dioecy in the species. To identify genes located in the non-recombining region (MSY, male-specific region of Y), RNA-seq analysis of male and female progeny plants (eight each) from a sib-cross of a dioecious line was performed. We discovered only 354 sex-chromosomal SNPs in 219 transcript sequences (genes). We randomly selected 39 sex-chromosomal genes to examine the reproducibility of the RNA-seq results and observed tight linkage to the male-determining locus in a spinach segregating population (140 individuals). Further analysis using a large-scale population (>1400) and over 100 spinach germplasm accessions and cultivars showed that SNPs in at least 12 genes are fully linked to the male-determining locus, suggesting that the genes reside in the spinach MSY. Synonymous substitution rates of the MSY genes and X homologues predict a recent divergence (0.40 ± 0.08 Mya). Furthermore, synonymous divergence between spinach and its wild relative (S. tetrandra), whose sex chromosomes (XY) originated from a common ancestral chromosome, predicted that the species diverged around 5.7 Mya. Assuming that dioecy in Spinacia evolved before speciation within the genus and has a monophyletic origin, our data suggest that recombination around the spinach sex-determining locus might have stopped significantly later than the evolution of dioecy in Spinacia.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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Multiple erythrocytic antigens that comprise at least three pairs of alternates and amorphs, determined by one complex gene or possibly several genes at closely linked loci. The system is important in transfusion reactions. Its expression involves the X-chromosome.
ATP-dependent DNA helicase that contains two N-terminal ZINC FINGERS and C-terminal ATP-binding and helicase domains. It functions in the regulation of gene transcription and CHROMATIN REMODELING. ATRX undergoes cell-cycle dependent phosphorylation, which causes it to translocate from the NUCLEAR MATRIX to CHROMATIN; thus, it may change its role from gene regulation during INTERPHASE to ensuring proper chromosome segregation at MITOSIS. Mutations in the ATRX gene are associated with cases of X-LINKED MENTAL RETARDATION co-morbid with ALPHA-THALASSEMIA (ATRX syndrome).
Sets of structured vocabularies used for describing and categorizing genes, and gene products by their molecular function, involvement in biological processes, and cellular location. These vocabularies and their associations to genes and gene products (Gene Ontology annotations) are generated and curated by the Gene Ontology Consortium.
An NADPH oxidase that is expressed by PHAGOCYTES where it transfers electrons across the plasma membrane from cytosolic NADPH to molecular oxygen on the exterior. It regulates proton (H+) flux into resting phagocytes to control intracellular pH. Mutations in the CYBB gene are associated with X-LINKED CHRONIC GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE.
Genetic diseases that are linked to gene mutations on the X CHROMOSOME in humans (X CHROMOSOME, HUMAN) or the X CHROMOSOME in other species. Included here are animal models of human X-linked diseases.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...