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Chlorothalonil is a thiol-reactive antifoulant that disperses widely and has been found in the marine environment. However, there is limited information on the deleterious effects of chlorothalonil in marine mollusks. In this study, we evaluated the effects of chlorothalonil on the gill tissues of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis after exposure to different concentrations of chlorothalonil (0.1, 1, and 10 μg L-1) for 96 h. Following exposure to 1 and/or 10 μg L-1 of chlorothalonil, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels significantly increased in the gill tissues of C. gigas and M. edulis compared to that in the control group at 96 h. Similarly, glutathione (GSH) levels were significantly affected in both bivalves after chlorothalonil exposure. The chlorothalonil treatment caused a significant time- and concentration-dependent increase in the activity of enzymes, such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR), in the antioxidant defense system. Furthermore, 10 μg L-1 of chlorothalonil resulted in significant inhibitions in the enzymatic activity of Na+/K+-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). These results suggest that chlorothalonil induces potential oxidative stress and changes in osmoregulation and the cholinergic system in bivalve gill tissues. This information will be a useful reference for the potential toxicity of chlorothalonil in marine bivalves.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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