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Mitochondrial type II NADH dehydrogenase of Plasmodium falciparum (PfNDH2) is dispensable in the asexual blood stages.

08:00 EDT 9th April 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Mitochondrial type II NADH dehydrogenase of Plasmodium falciparum (PfNDH2) is dispensable in the asexual blood stages."

The battle against malaria has been substantially impeded by the recurrence of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest human malaria parasite. To counter the problem, novel antimalarial drugs are urgently needed, especially those that target unique pathways of the parasite, since they are less likely to have side effects. The mitochondrial type II NADH dehydrogenase (NDH2) of P. falciparum, PfNDH2 (PF3D7_0915000), has been considered a good prospective antimalarial drug target for over a decade, since malaria parasites lack the conventional multi-subunit NADH dehydrogenase, or Complex I, present in the mammalian mitochondrial electron transport chain (mtETC). Instead, Plasmodium parasites contain a single subunit NDH2, which lacks proton pumping activity and is absent in humans. A significant amount of effort has been expended to develop PfNDH2 specific inhibitors, yet the essentiality of PfNDH2 has not been convincingly verified. Herein, we knocked out PfNDH2 in P. falciparum via a CRISPR/Cas9 mediated approach. Deletion of PfNDH2 does not alter the parasite's susceptibility to multiple mtETC inhibitors, including atovaquone and ELQ-300. We also show that the antimalarial activity of the fungal NDH2 inhibitor HDQ and its new derivative CK-2-68 is due to inhibition of the parasite cytochrome bc1 complex rather than PfNDH2. These compounds directly inhibit the ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase activity of the malarial bc1 complex. Our results suggest that PfNDH2 is not likely a good antimalarial drug target.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: PloS one
ISSN: 1932-6203
Pages: e0214023

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.

A surface protein found on Plasmodium species which induces a T-cell response. The antigen is polymorphic, sharing amino acid sequence homology among PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; and PLASMODIUM YOELII.

A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.

A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 1.6.2.1.

A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.

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