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Purpose This study predicts and simulates the function and relative contributions of the intravelar and extravelar portions of the levator veli palatini (LVP) and palatoglossus (PG) muscles in velic constrictions. Method A finite element-based model of the 3-dimensional upper airway structures (palate, pharynx, tongue, jaw, maxilla) was implemented, with LVP and PG divided into intravelar and extravelar portions. Simulations were run to investigate the contributions of these muscles in velopharyngeal port (VPP) closure and constriction of the oropharyngeal isthmus (OPI). Results Simulations reveal that the extravelar portion of LVP, though crucial for lifting the palate, is not sufficient to effect VPP closure. Specifically, the characteristic "bulge" appearing in the posterior soft palate during VPP closure ( Pigott, 1969 ; Serrurier & Badin, 2008 ) is found to result from activation of the intravelar portion of LVP. Likewise, the intravelar portion of posterior PG is crucial in bending the "veil" or "traverse" ( Gick, Francis, Klenin, Mizrahi, & Tom, 2013 ) of the velum anteriorly to produce uvular constrictions of the OPI ( Gick et al., 2014 ). Conclusions Simulations support the view that intravelar LVP and PG play significant roles in VPP and OPI constrictions.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR
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The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).
Tumors or cancer of the PALATE, including those of the hard palate, soft palate and UVULA.
Congenital fissure of the soft and/or hard palate, due to faulty fusion.
A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.
Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.