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Musclin is a muscle-secreted cytokine that disrupts glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis in type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of musclin gene expression in response to treatment with palmitate. RNA sequencing results showed that biological processes activated by palmitate are mainly enriched in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK) signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of musclin expression induced by palmitate. Chromatin immunoprecipitation data showed that activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) - downstream of PERK - bound to the promoter of the C/EBPβ gene. Notably, C/EBPβ also contains a binding site in the region -94~-52 of the musclin gene promoter. Knockdown or knockout of PERK and ATF4 using short hairpin RNA or CRISPR-Cas9 decreased the expression of C/EBPβ and musclin induced by palmitate. Furthermore, knockdown and knockout of C/EBPβ alleviated the high expression of musclin in response to treatment with palmitate. Moreover, CRISPR-Cas9 knockout of the region -94~-52 in which C/EBPβ binds to the promoter of musclin abrogated the induction of high musclin expression caused by palmitate. Collectively, these findings suggest that treatment with palmitate activates the PERK/ATF4 signaling pathway, which in turn increases the expression of C/EBPβ. C/EBPβ binds directly to the promoter of the musclin gene and upregulates its expression.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
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The expression of a gene in an abnormal place, or at an abnormal time in an organism. Ectopic Gene Expression is often induced artificially by genetic techniques.
A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that negatively regulates expression of ARNTL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and plays a role as a regulatory component of the circadian clock system. The Nr1d1 nuclear receptor expression is cyclically-regulated by a feedback loop involving its positive regulation by CLOCK PROTEIN; BMAL1 PROTEIN heterodimers and its negative regulation by CRYPTOCHROME and PERIOD PROTEINS.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
Arthritis Fibromyalgia Gout Lupus Rheumatic Rheumatology is the medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and management of disease involving joints, tendons, muscles, ligaments and associated structures (Oxford Medical Diction...
Cytokines include chemokines, lymphokines, and monokines. Cells of the immune system communicate with one another by releasing and responding to chemical messengers called cytokines. These proteins are secreted by immune cells and act on other cells to...