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The importance of thermodynamics does not need to be emphasized. Indeed, elevated temperature processes govern not only industrial scale production, but also self-assembly, chemical reaction, interaction between molecules, etc. Not surprisingly, biological processes take typically place at defined temperature. Here, we look at possibilities to raise the localized temperature by a laser around noble metal nanoparticles incorporated into shells of layer-by-layer (LbL) polyelectrolyte microcapsules - freely suspended delivery vehicles in aqueous solution, developed in the Department of Interfaces, Max-Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces headed by Helmuth Möhwald. Understanding the mechanisms around localized temperature rise is essential, that is why we analyze thermodynamics at the nanoscale, the influence of incident intensity, nanoparticle size, their distribution and aggregation state. This leads us to scrutinize "global" (used for thermal encapsulation) versus "local" (used for release of encapsulated materials) temperature around nanoparticles. Similar analysis is extended to the lipid membrane system of vesicles and cells, on which nanoparticles are adsorbed. Insights are provided into the mechanisms of physico-chemical and biological effects, the nature of which has always been profoundly, interactively, and engagingly discussed in the Department. This analysis is combined with recent developments providing outlook and highlighting a broad range of emerging applications.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids
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A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...