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Purines represent a class of essential metabolites produced by the cell to maintain cellular homeostasis and facilitate cell proliferation. In times of high purine demand, the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway is activated; however, the mechanisms that facilitate this process are largely unknown. One plausible mechanism is through intracellular signaling, which results in enzymes within the pathway becoming post-translationally modified to enhance their individual enzyme activities and the overall pathway metabolic flux. Here, we employ a proteomic strategy to investigate the extent to which de novo purine biosynthetic pathway enzymes are post-translationally modified in 293T cells. We identified seven post-translational modifications on 135 residues across the six human pathway enzymes. We further asked whether there were differences in the post-translational modification state of each pathway enzyme isolated from cells cultured in the presence or absence of purines. Of the 174 assigned modifications, 67% of them were only detected in one experimental growth condition where a significant number of serine/threonine phosphorylations were noted. A survey of the most probable kinases responsible for these phosphorylation events uncovered a likely AKT phosphorylation site at residue Thr397 of PPAT, which was only detected in cells under purine supplemented growth conditions. These data suggest that this modification might alter enzyme activity or modulate its interaction(s) with downstream pathway enzymes. Together, these findings propose a role for post-translational modifications in pathway regulation and activation to meet intracellular purine demand.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of proteome research
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Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A series of sequential intracellular steps involved in the transport of proteins (such as hormones and enzymes) from the site of synthesis to outside the cell. The pathway involves membrane-bound compartments through which the newly synthesized proteins undergo POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATIONS, packaging, storage, or transportation to the PLASMA MEMBRANE for secretion.
Any of the enzymatically catalyzed modifications of the individual AMINO ACIDS of PROTEINS, and enzymatic cleavage or crosslinking of peptide chains that occur pre-translationally (on the amino acid component of AMINO ACYL TRNA), co-translationally (during the process of GENETIC TRANSLATION), or after translation is completed (POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING).
Disorders caused by imbalances in the protein homeostasis network - synthesis, folding, and transport of proteins; post-translational modifications; and degradation or clearance of misfolded proteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a formyl group from N10-formyltetrahydrofolate to N1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide to yield N2-formyl-N1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide and tetrahydrofolate. It plays a role in the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway.
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical re...