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The Chinese concave-eared torrent frog (Odorrana tormota) is typically sexually dimorphic. Females are significantly less common than males in the wild. Until now, the molecular mechanisms of reproduction and sex differentiation of frogs remain unclear. Here, we integrated mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles to reveal the molecular mechanisms of reproduction and sex differentiation in O. tormota. We identified 234 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and 18,551 differentially expressed transcripts. Of these, 12,053 mRNAs and 64 miRNAs were upregulated in testes, and 6,498 mRNAs and 170 miRNAs were upregulated in ovaries. Integrated analysis of the miRNA and mRNA expression profiles predicted 75,602 potential miRNA-mRNA interaction sites, with 42,065 negative miRNA-mRNA interactions. We found 36 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to reproduction and sex differentiation, of which 15 DEGs formed 92 negative miRNA-mRNA interactions with 34 known DEMs. Thus, miRNAs may play other important roles in O. tormota. Furthermore, Gene Ontology enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses showed reproductive-related processes, such as the gonadotropinreleasing hormone signaling pathway and ovarian steroidogenesis. Based on functional annotation and the literature, the retinoic acid signaling pathway, the SOX9-AMH pathway, and the process of spermatogenesis may be involved in the molecular mechanisms of reproduction and sex differentiation in O. tormota, and may be regulated by miRNAs. The miRNA-mRNA pairs described may provide further understanding of the regulatory mechanisms associated with reproduction and sex differentiation, and the molecular mechanism of reproduction in O. tormota.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of experimental zoology. Part B, Molecular and developmental evolution
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A concept, developed in 1983 under the aegis of and supported by the National Library of Medicine under the name of Integrated Academic Information Management Systems, to provide professionals in academic health sciences centers and health sciences institutions with convenient access to an integrated and comprehensive network of knowledge. It addresses a wide cross-section of users from administrators and faculty to students and clinicians and has applications to planning, clinical and managerial decision-making, teaching, and research. It provides access to various types of clinical, management, educational, etc., databases, as well as to research and bibliographic databases. In August 1992 the name was changed from Integrated Academic Information Management Systems to Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems to reflect use beyond the academic milieu.
A heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein found in the CELL NUCLEUS and the CYTOPLASM. Heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein K has been implicated in the regulation of gene expression at nearly all levels: GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION; mRNA processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL), mRNA transport, mRNA stability, and translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). The hnRNP protein has a strong affinity for polypyrimidine-rich RNA and for single-stranded polypyrimidine-rich DNA. Multiple hnRNP K protein isoforms exist due to alternative splicing and display different nucleic-acid-binding properties.
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