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To characterize the inflammatory response and determine the no-observable-effect level (NOEL) in cynomolgus monkey eyes after intravitreal (ITV) injection of endotoxin.
This article was published in the following journal.
Endotoxins are cell wall components of Gram-negative bacteria. A release of endotoxins into the human blood stream results in an inflammation reaction that can lead to life-threatening conditions like...
Exposure to endotoxin occurs environmentally and occupationally. There are several differences between them in terms of the variety and severity of health outcomes, possible exposed groups and type an...
To determine the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of trazodone and its effect on the activity of domestic pigeons (Columba livia).
Lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) from the outer Gram-negative bacterial wall can induce a harmful immunologic response, involving hemodynamic deprivation, and is one important motor driving the septic c...
Placental infection induces increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of preterm labor. Endotoxin tolerance is a phenomenon in which exposure to a ...
Vitamin A given as treatment and pre-treatment has reduced the severity of symptoms after infusion with endotoxin in several animal models. We intend to examine the effect of vitamin A as ...
The purpose of the research is to study a common and dangerous medical condition called 'septic shock' that often occurs in critically ill patients. In order to learn about septic shock i...
The purpose of the study is to determine the role of nitric oxide (NO) in asthma and to characterize the symptoms associated with inhaled endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) in normal sub...
Epinephrine (adrenaline) is a substance produced by the body (in the adrenal gland) in response to stress such as infection or injury. Endotoxin is a man- made substance, which causes the ...
The aim of the study is to isolate the direct effects of endotoxin on glucose, lipid and protein metabolism. Eight healthy volunteers are enrolled. The hypothesis is that endotoxin will in...
Establishment of the level of a quantifiable effect indicative of a biologic process. The evaluation is frequently to detect the degree of toxic or therapeutic effect.
Sensitive method for detection of bacterial endotoxins and endotoxin-like substances that depends on the in vitro gelation of Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL), prepared from the circulating blood (amebocytes) of the horseshoe crab, by the endotoxin or related compound. Used for detection of endotoxin in body fluids and parenteral pharmaceuticals.
Hemorrhagic necrosis that was first demonstrated in rabbits with a two-step reaction, an initial local (intradermal) or general (intravenous) injection of a priming endotoxin (ENDOTOXINS) followed by a second intravenous endotoxin injection (provoking agent) 24 h later. The acute inflammation damages the small blood vessels. The following intravascular coagulation leads to capillary and venous THROMBOSIS and NECROSIS. Shwartzman phenomenon can also occur in other species with a single injection of a provoking agent, and during infections or pregnancy. Its susceptibility depends on the status of IMMUNE SYSTEM, coagulation, FIBRINOLYSIS, and blood flow.
The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects. The NOAEL will depend on how closely dosages are spaced (lowest-observed-adverse-effect level and no-observed-effect level) and the number of animals examined. The ultimate objective is usually to determine not the "safe" dosage in laboratory animals but the "safe" dosage for humans. Therefore, the extrapolation most often required of toxicologists is from high-dosage studies in laboratory animals to low doses in humans. (Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 4th ed)
Measurement of rate of airflow over the middle half of a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination (from the 25 percent level to the 75 percent level). Common abbreviations are MMFR and FEF 25%-75%.
Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that is devoted to the study and treatment of eye diseases. As well as mild visual defects correctable by lenses, ophthalmology is concerned with glaucoma, uveitis and other serious conditions affecting the eye, ...