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An epidemiological survey conducted among users of water points and medical institutions in the N'djili Kilambu neighborhood of Kinshasa in Democratic Republic of the Congo, indicates that waterborne diseases have already affected more than 60% of the patients admitted to local clinics between 2013 and 2017. In order to raise public and political awareness about this hazardous health issue resulting from the lack of safely managed sanitation systems, this study investigates the microbial quality of drinking water from local water resources. Water samples were collected from nine wells and streams used as drinking sources, and analyzed for Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB), including Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, and Total Coliforms. Physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, O, and soluble ions (Na, K, PO, SO, NO, NO) were also analyzed. Except for NO and NO, the average concentrations of the physicochemical parameters and dissolved ions generally meet the guidelines for drinking/domestic water quality. By contrast, the results reveal high levels of FIB in the water samples collected during both dry and wet seasons. The contamination is significantly higher during the wet season compared to dry season, due to increased runoff, open defecation practices, and more frequent overflow of onsite sanitation systems and septic tanks.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous substances & environmental engineering
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Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
Illnesses due to micro-organisms and chemicals in drinking water, those caused by organisms having part of their lifecycle in water or those with water-related vectors, and others spread by aerosols containing pathogens.
The exposure to potentially harmful factors such as trace heavy metals, chemicals, radiation, or toxins due to FOOD CONTAMINATION including DRINKING WATER contamination.
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (lakes, RIVERS, seas, groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of waste water to provide potable and hygiene water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...