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The Role of Intravenous Iron in the Treatment of Anemia Associated with Cancer and Chemotherapy.

08:00 EDT 10th April 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "The Role of Intravenous Iron in the Treatment of Anemia Associated with Cancer and Chemotherapy."

Cancer-related anemia (CRA) is a commonly occurring problem for patients with cancer regardless of whether they are receiving treatment with chemotherapy or immunotherapy. It may result from one or more processes (decreased production, increased destruction, or increased loss of red blood cells, RBC). Perturbations in iron availability form the primary basis for anemia in many patients with cancer-related anemia. Functional iron deficiency (FID) anemia is a condition in which the patient has adequate or increased iron stores, but this iron pool is not available for erythropoiesis. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) were the original treatment for FID; over time, however, if the supply of iron cannot keep pace with increased RBC synthesis driven by ESAs, FID may eventually lead to the lack or loss of ESA responsiveness. Subsequent clinical trials reported that intravenous (IV) iron could enhance the erythropoietic response to ESAs. This chapter reviews the pathogenesis of FID and summarizes the literature on the treatment of cancer- and chemotherapy-induced anemia. Clinical trials using IV iron with or without ESAs are reviewed in addition to the currently available IV iron products. The consensus conclusions from these trials, as well as guideline recommendations, support the use of IV iron in these patients to enhance ESA responsiveness, decrease ESA dosage, and reduce RBC transfusions. Little data have been published on the long-term safety of IV iron or its impact on tumor growth. This paper also briefly explores novel approaches for the treatment of FID anemia, which has relevance in treating not only cancer patients but also patients with benign inflammatory disorders.

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Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Acta haematologica
ISSN: 1421-9662
Pages: 13-20

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.

Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.

Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)

An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)

Anemia characterized by the presence of erythroblasts containing excessive deposits of iron in the marrow.

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