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Cancer-related anemia (CRA) is a commonly occurring problem for patients with cancer regardless of whether they are receiving treatment with chemotherapy or immunotherapy. It may result from one or more processes (decreased production, increased destruction, or increased loss of red blood cells, RBC). Perturbations in iron availability form the primary basis for anemia in many patients with cancer-related anemia. Functional iron deficiency (FID) anemia is a condition in which the patient has adequate or increased iron stores, but this iron pool is not available for erythropoiesis. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) were the original treatment for FID; over time, however, if the supply of iron cannot keep pace with increased RBC synthesis driven by ESAs, FID may eventually lead to the lack or loss of ESA responsiveness. Subsequent clinical trials reported that intravenous (IV) iron could enhance the erythropoietic response to ESAs. This chapter reviews the pathogenesis of FID and summarizes the literature on the treatment of cancer- and chemotherapy-induced anemia. Clinical trials using IV iron with or without ESAs are reviewed in addition to the currently available IV iron products. The consensus conclusions from these trials, as well as guideline recommendations, support the use of IV iron in these patients to enhance ESA responsiveness, decrease ESA dosage, and reduce RBC transfusions. Little data have been published on the long-term safety of IV iron or its impact on tumor growth. This paper also briefly explores novel approaches for the treatment of FID anemia, which has relevance in treating not only cancer patients but also patients with benign inflammatory disorders.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Acta haematologica
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Iron deficiency, with or without anemia, is common in pregnant women. In fact, nearly 30% of reproductive-age women are anemic worldwide, and anemia in pregnancy has an estimated global prevalence of ...
A large number of patients with iron deficiency anemia have no known cause of their anemia despite a full evaluation. Optimal management and follow-up for this issue is unclear. Results of previous st...
Iron deficiency anemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD patients suffer from both absolute and functional iron deficiency. Absolute iron deficiency is defined by severely ...
Few case series of pagophagia and iron deficiency include men. We performed a retrospective study of non-Hispanic white men with iron-deficiency anemia whose anemia and pagophagia, thrombocytosis, and...
- Multifactorial pathogenesis is involved in anemia of cancer patients and defining the causes of anemia is not always simple. - Currently, treatment options available for anemia...
The investigators assess and compare the efficacy of anemia treatment in pregnant women with anemia of chronic disease with true iron deficiency and in women with iron deficiency anemia.
Iron deficiency anemia is a common complication in patients who underwent gastrectomy and leads to a deterioration in patient's quality of life. Therefore iron supplementation is one of th...
The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of treatment between intravenous iron sucrose and oral iron fumarate in pregnant women in the third trimester.
To assess the change in hemoglobin levels when iron sucrose was added to a regimen of weekly, fixed doses of erythropoietin in patients who had or had not responded to erythropoietin thera...
Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.
Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.
Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)
An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)
Anemia characterized by the presence of erythroblasts containing excessive deposits of iron in the marrow.
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...
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