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Management of Perioperative Iron Deficiency Anemia.

08:00 EDT 10th April 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Management of Perioperative Iron Deficiency Anemia."

Preoperative anemia affects 30-40% of patients undergoing major surgery and is an independent risk factor for perioperative blood transfusion, morbidity, and mortality. Absolute or functional iron deficiency is its leading cause. Nonanemic hematinic deficiencies are also prevalent and may hamper preoperative hemoglobin optimization and/or recovery from postoperative anemia. As modifiable risk factors, anemia and hematinic deficiencies should be detected and corrected prior to major surgical procedures. Postoperative anemia is even more common (up to 80-90%) due to surgery-associated blood loss, inflammation-induced blunted erythropoiesis, and/or preexisting anemia. Preoperative oral iron may have a role in mild-to-moderate anemia, provided there is sufficient time (6-8 weeks) and adequate tolerance of oral preparations. Postoperative oral iron is of little value and rife with gastrointestinal adverse events. Intravenous iron should preferentially be used in cases of moderate-to-severe iron deficiency anemia, concomitant use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, short time to surgery or nonelective procedures, and for postoperative anemia management. Minor infusion reactions to intravenous iron are rare, the incidence of severe anaphylactic reactions is extremely low, and there is no increase in infections with intravenous iron. Currently available intravenous iron formulations allowing administration of large single doses are preferred.

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Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Acta haematologica
ISSN: 1421-9662
Pages: 21-29

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.

Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.

Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)

A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)

An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)

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