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Airway epithelium is an important site for local vitamin D (VD) metabolism; this can be negatively affected by inflammatory mediators. VD is an important regulator of respiratory host defense, for example, by increasing the expression of hCAP18/LL-37. TGF-β1 is increased in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and known to decrease the expression of constitutive host defense mediators such as secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR). VD has been shown to affect TGF-β1-signaling by inhibiting TGF-β1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. However, interactions between VD and TGF-β1, relevant for the understanding host defense in COPD, are incompletely understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the combined effects of VD and TGF-β1 on airway epithelial cell host defense mechanisms. Exposure to TGF-β1 reduced both baseline and VD-induced expression of hCAP18/LL-37, partly by increasing the expression of the VD-degrading enzyme CYP24A1. TGF-β1 alone decreased the number of secretory club and goblet cells and reduced the expression of constitutive host defense mediators SLPI, s/lPLUNC and pIgR, effects that were not modulated by VD. These results suggest that TGF-β1 may decrease the respiratory host defense both directly by reducing the expression of host defense mediators, and indirectly by affecting VD-mediated effects such as expression of hCAP18/LL-37.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of innate immunity
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Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).
A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
OXIDOREDUCTASES which mediate vitamin K metabolism by converting inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.
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COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is used for a number of conditions including chronic bronchitis and emphysema, which all lead to the airways in the lungs becoming damaged and thus narrower, making inhalation and exhalation harder...