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Advanced methods of molecular characterization have elucidated the genetic, epigenetic, and proteomic alterations associated with the broad spectrum of pancreatic disease, particularly neoplasia. Next-generation sequencing, in particular, has revealed the genomic diversity among pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine and acinar tumors, solid pseudopapillary neoplasm, and other pancreatico-biliary neoplasms. Differentiating these entities from one another by morphologic analysis alone may be challenging, especially when examining the small quantities of diagnostic material inherent to cytologic specimens. In order to enhance the sensitivity and specificity of pancreatic cytomorphology, multiple diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive ancillary tests have been and continue to be developed. Although a great number of such tests have been developed for evaluation of specimens collected from cystic lesions and strictures, ancillary techniques also play a significant role in the evaluation of cytologic specimens obtained from solid lesions of the pancreas. Furthermore, while some tests have been developed to differentiate diagnostic entities from one another, others have been developed to simply identify dysplasia and malignancy. Ancillary studies are particularly important in the subset of cases for which cytomorphologic analysis provides a result that is equivocal or insufficient to guide clinical management. Selection of appropriate ancillary testing modalities requires familiarity with both their methodology and the molecular basis of the pancreatic diseases for which testing is being performed.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Acta cytologica
Ancillary testing including immunohistochemistry and molecular diagnostics has become an increasingly important component for the evaluation of cytologic specimens. Ancillary testing is important not ...
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The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.
Techniques used to synthesize chemicals using molecular substrates that are bound to a solid surface. Typically a series of reactions are conducted on the bound substrate that results in either the covalent attachment of specific moieties or the modification of existing function groups. These techniques offer an advantage to those involving solution reactions in that the substrate compound does not have to be isolated and purified between the reaction steps.
Methods of preparing tissue specimens for visualization using an electron microscope, usually a scanning electron microscope. The methods involve the creation of exact copies of the specimens by making a mold or cast (i.e., replica) of the specimen.
Methods, procedures, and tests performed in the laboratory with an intended application to the diagnosis of disease or understanding of physiological functioning. The techniques include examination of microbiological, cytological, chemical, and biochemical specimens, normal and pathological.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The development and maintenance of an organism is orchestrated by a set of chemical reactions that switch parts of the genome off and on at strategic times and locations. Epigenetics is the study of these reactions and the factors that influence them. ...