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Aging is a progressive and complicated bioprocess with overall decline in physiological function. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease in middle-aged and older populations. Since the prevalence of OA increases with age and breakdown of articular cartilage is its major hallmark, OA has long been thought of as "wear and tear" of joint cartilage. Nevertheless, recent studies have revealed that changes in the chondrocyte function and matrix components may reduce the material properties of articular cartilage and predispose the joint to OA. The aberrant gene expression in aging articular cartilage that is regulated by various epigenetic mechanisms plays an important role in age-related OA pathogenesis. This review begins with an introduction to the current understanding of epigenetic mechanisms, followed by mechanistic studies on the aging of joint tissues, epigenetic regulation of age-dependent gene expression in articular cartilage, and the significance of epigenetic mechanisms in OA pathogenesis. Our recent findings on age-dependent expression of 2 transcription factors, nuclear factor of activated T cell 1 (NFAT1) and SOX9, and their roles in the formation and aging of articular cartilage are summarized in the review. Chondrocyte dysfunction in aged mice, which is mediated by epigenetically regulated spontaneous reduction of NFAT1 expression in articular cartilage, is highlighted as an important advance in epigenetics and cartilage aging. Potential therapeutic strategies for age-related cartilage degeneration and OA using epigenetic molecular tools are discussed at the end.
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To compare the transcriptome of articular cartilage from knees with meniscus tears to knees with end-stage osteoarthritis (OA).
The composition and structure of articular cartilage evolves during the development and progression of osteoarthritis (OA) resulting in changing mechanical responses. We aimed to assess the evolution ...
A recent randomized clinical trial reported that repeated intra-articular corticosteroids (IACs) were associated with a greater cartilage loss. This study aimed to examine the relation of IACs to knee...
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disorder involving deterioration of articular cartilage and underlying bone and is associated with symptoms of pain and disability. Glucosamine is a component of articular car...
During osteoarthritis, chondrocytes seem to change their spatial arrangement from single to double strings, small and big clusters. Since the pericellular matrix (PCM) appears to degrade alongside thi...
This study is conducted to assess whether implanting autologous, culture-expanded, mesenchymal stem cells obtained from the bone marrow of patients with early osteoarthritis, cartilage de...
The Cartilage Autograft Implantation System (CAIS) is designed as a single surgical treatment of damaged knee cartilage using the subject's own healthy cartilage obtained from a non-weight...
This study is aimed at evaluating the feasibility and effectiveness of a completely natural tissue engineered cartilage, composed of a self-made tissue engineered oriented scaffold and aut...
This one-year study is designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of TPX-100, a 23-amino acid chondrogenic peptide, delivered by intra-articular injection, in regeneration of knee car...
This study will examine the effect of exercise on the turnover of collagen in articular cartilage and the content of cytokines in the synovial fluid from human adults with osteoarthritis.
A degenerative joint disease involving the SPINE. It is characterized by progressive deterioration of the spinal articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR), usually with hardening of the subchondral bone and outgrowth of bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE).
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.
A type of CARTILAGE characterized by a homogenous amorphous matrix containing predominately TYPE II COLLAGEN and ground substance. Hyaline cartilage is found in ARTICULAR CARTILAGE; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; and the NASAL SEPTUM.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)
The development and maintenance of an organism is orchestrated by a set of chemical reactions that switch parts of the genome off and on at strategic times and locations. Epigenetics is the study of these reactions and the factors that influence them. ...
Arthritis is by definition the inflammation of one or more joints, characterized by swelling, pain, warmth, redness and diminished range of joint movement (Oxford Medical Dictionary). There are many different types; Noninflammatory; Osteoarthritis, N...