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In this review, we discuss the often overlooked tissue-resident fetal macrophages, Hofbauer cells, which are found within the chorionic villi of the human placenta. Hofbauer cells have been shown to have a phenotype associated with regulatory and anti-inflammatory functions. They are thought to play a crucial role in the regulation of pregnancy and in the maintenance of a homeostatic environment that is crucial for fetal development. Even though the numbers of these macrophages are some of the most abundant immune cells in the human placenta, which are sustained throughout pregnancy, there are very few studies that have identified their origin, their phenotype, and functions and why they are maintained throughout gestation. It is not yet understood how Hofbauer cells may change in function throughout normal pregnancy, and especially in those complicated by maternal gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and viral infections, such as Zika, cytomegalovirus, and human immunodeficiency virus. We review what is known about the origin of these macrophages and explore how common complications of pregnancy dysregulate these cells leading to adverse birth outcomes in humans. Our synthesis sheds light on areas for human studies that can further define these innate regulatory cells.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of innate immunity
Zika virus (ZIKV), which emerged in regions endemic to dengue virus (DENV), is vertically transmitted and results in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Antibodies to DENV can cross-react with ZIKV, but wheth...
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The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A perilipin that is expressed by many different cell types. It binds FATTY ACIDS and CHOLESTEROL, stabilizes TRIGLYCERIDES, and localizes to both the surface and hydrophobic core of LIPID DROPLETS, as well as the ENDOPLASMIC RECTICULUM and PLASMA MEMBRANE in MACROPHAGES. It also plays a central role in the biogenesis of lipid droplets and FOAM CELLS and is highly expressed by macrophages at atherosclerotic lesions in human arteries along with the INFLAMMATION markers TNF-ALPHA; MCP-1 RECEPTOR; and IL-6.
A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.
A sialic acid binding lectin that was originally identified as an adhesion molecule for inflammatory MACROPHAGES and activated MONOCYTES. This protein is the largest known siglec subtype and contains 16 immunoglobulin C2-set domains. It plays a role in cell to cell interactions and interactions with BACTERIA.
Methods used for the assessment of placental function.
Obstetrics and gynaecology
Fertility Menopause Obstetrics & Gynaecology Osteoporosis Women's Health Obstetrics and gynaecology comprises the care of the pregnant woman, her unborn child and the management of diseases specific to women. Most consultant...