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Enteric viruses pose the greatest acute human health risks associated with subsurface drinking water supplies, yet quantitative risk assessment tools have rarely been used to develop health-based targets for virus treatment in drinking water sourced from these supplies. Such efforts have previously been hampered by a lack of consensus concerning a suitable viral reference pathogen and dose-response model as well as difficulties in quantifying pathogenic viruses in water. A reverse quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) framework and quantitative polymerase chain reaction data for norovirus genogroup I in subsurface drinking water supplies were used herein to evaluate treatment needs for such water supplies. Norovirus was not detected in over 90% of samples, which emphasizes the need to consider the spatially and/or temporally intermittent patterns of enteric pathogen contamination in subsurface water supplies. Collectively, this analysis reinforces existing recommendations that a minimum 4-log treatment goal is needed for enteric viruses in groundwater in absence of well-specific monitoring information. This result is sensitive to the virus dose-response model used as there is approximately a 3-log discrepancy among virus dose-response models in the existing literature. This emphasizes the need to address the uncertainties and lack of consensus related to various QMRA modelling approaches and the analytical limitations that preclude more accurate description of virus risks.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Water research
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An acetic acid derivative that is a metabolite of TRICHLOROETHYLENE and is formed during chlorine disinfection of drinking water. It has effects on GLUCOSE metabolism, lowers LACTATE, and activates the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of waste water to provide potable and hygiene water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Illnesses due to micro-organisms and chemicals in drinking water, those caused by organisms having part of their lifecycle in water or those with water-related vectors, and others spread by aerosols containing pathogens.
Water that is intended to be ingested.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) uses the ability of DNA polymerase (enzymes that create DNA molecules by assembling nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. These enzymes are essential to DNA replication and usually work in pairs to create two ident...
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...