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The loss of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity leading to vasogenic edema and brain swelling is a common feature of hypoxic/ischemic brain diseases such as stroke, but is also central to the etiology of other CNS disorders. In the past decades, numerous proteins, belonging to the family of angioneurins, have gained increasing attention as potential therapeutic targets for ischemic stroke, but also other CNS diseases attributed to BBB dysfunction. Angioneurins encompass mediators that affect both neuronal and vascular function. Recently, increasing evidence has been accumulated that certain angioneurins critically determine disease progression and outcome in stroke among others through multifaceted effects on the compromised BBB. Here, we will give a concise overview about the family of angioneurins. We further describe the most important cellular and molecular components that contribute to structural integrity and low permeability of the BBB under steady-state conditions. We then discuss BBB alterations in ischemic stroke, and highlight underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. For the most prominent angioneurin family members including vascular endothelial growth factors, angiopoietins, platelet-derived growth factors and erythropoietin, we will summarize current scientific literature from experimental studies in animal models, and if available from clinical trials, on the following points: (i) spatiotemporal expression of these factors in the healthy and hypoxic/ischemic CNS, (ii) impact of loss- or gain-of-function during cerebral hypoxia/ischemia for BBB integrity and beyond, and (iii) potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Moreover, we will highlight novel therapeutic strategies based on the activation of endogenous angioneurins that might improve BBB dysfuntion during ischemic stroke.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Progress in neurobiology
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The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
The barrier between the perineurium of PERIPHERAL NERVES and the endothelium (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR) of endoneurial CAPILLARIES. The perineurium acts as a diffusion barrier, but ion permeability at the blood-nerve barrier is still higher than at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.
Measurement of light given off by fluorescein in order to assess the integrity of various ocular barriers. The method is used to investigate the blood-aqueous barrier, blood-retinal barrier, aqueous flow measurements, corneal endothelial permeability, and tear flow dynamics.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
A claudin subtype that is found localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS in VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. The protein was initially identified as one of several proteins which are deleted in VELOCARDIOFACIAL SYNDROME and may play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
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