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The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) delays anaphase onset until sister chromosomes are bound to microtubules from opposite spindle poles. Only then can dynamic microtubules produce tension across sister kinetochores. The interdependence of kinetochore attachment and tension has proved challenging to understanding SAC mechanisms. Whether the SAC responds simply to kinetochore attachment or to tension status remains obscure. Unlike higher eukaryotes, budding yeast kinetochores bind only one microtubule, simplifying the relation between attachment and tension. We developed a Taxol-sensitive yeast model to reduce tension in fully assembled spindles. Our results show that low tension on bipolar-attached kinetochores delays anaphase onset, independent of detachment. The delay is transient relative to that imposed by unattached kinetochores. Furthermore, it is mediated by Bub1 and Bub3, but not Mad1, Mad2, and Mad3 (BubR1). Our results demonstrate that reduced tension delays anaphase onset via a signal that is temporally and mechanistically distinct from that produced by unattached kinetochores.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cell reports
Error-free chromosome segregation during mitosis depends on a functional spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). The SAC is a multi-component signalling system that is recruited to unattached or incorrectl...
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Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint apparatus. It binds to and inhibits the Cdc20 activator subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex, preventing the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. Mad2 is required for proper microtubule capture at KINETOCHORES.
A serine/threonine-specific protein kinase which is encoded by the CHEK1 gene in humans. Checkpoint kinase 1 (also known as Chk1) coordinates DNA damage response and cell cycle checkpoint response. Under these conditions, activation of Chk1 results in the initiation of cell cycle checkpoints, cell cycle arrest, DNA repair and cell death, to prevent damaged cells from progressing through the cell cycle.
Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.
Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.
An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.