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The ER-Localized Protein DFCP1 Modulates ER-Lipid Droplet Contact Formation.

08:00 EDT 9th April 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "The ER-Localized Protein DFCP1 Modulates ER-Lipid Droplet Contact Formation."

Very little is known about the spatiotemporal generation of lipid droplets (LDs) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the factors that mediate ER-LD contacts for LD growth. Using super-resolution grazing incidence structured illumination microscopy (GI-SIM) live-cell imaging, we reveal that upon LD induction, the ER-localized protein DFCP1 redistributes to nascent puncta on the ER, whose formation depends on triglyceride synthesis. These structures move along the ER and fuse to form expanding LDs. Fusion and expansion of DFCP1-labeled nascent structures is controlled by BSCL2. BSCL2 depletion causes accumulation of nascent DFCP1 structures. DFCP1 overexpression increases LD size and enhances ER-LD contacts, while DFCP1 knockdown has the opposite effect. DFCP1 acts as a Rab18 effector for LD localization and interacts with the Rab18-ZW10 complex to mediate ER-LD contact formation. Our study reveals that fusion of DFCP1-labeled nascent structures contributes to initial LD growth and that the DFCP1-Rab18 complex is involved in tethering the ER-LD contact for LD expansion.

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Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Cell reports
ISSN: 2211-1247
Pages: 343-358.e5

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A family of vertebrate and insect lipid droplet associated proteins. They consist of a conserved N-terminal PAT domain (an alpha-helical region of about 110 amino acids), an 11-mer repeat region, and lipid-binding hydrophobic regions or 4-helix bundles near their C-termini. Perilipins transiently or constitutively localize to LIPID DROPLETS in ADIPOCYTES and FOAM CELLS, especially in regions adjacent to the PLASMA MEMBRANE and ENDOPLASMIC RECTICULUM. They are critical for lipid droplet synthesis and homeostasis as well as the regulation of lipid metabolism. Genetic variations in perilipins are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS; OBESITY; and DIABETES MELLITUS.

Proteins, such as PERILIPINS, that localize to LIPID DROPLETS either transiently or constitutively.

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A perilipin that localizes to LIPID DROPLETS; CYTOPLASM; ENDOSOMES; and PLASMA MEMBRANE, especially in MACROPHAGES. It functions as a transporter of free fatty acids to lipid droplets to promote their biogenesis and growth. It is also required for the transport of the MANNOSE-6-PHOSPHATE RECEPTOR from endosomes to the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK. Its structure consists of four helix bundles that interact with the hydrophobic lipid droplet surface.

Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.

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