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This study examined the effect of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (0.5 mg/kg) alone or in combination with the angiotensin-receptor blocker valsartan (30 mg/kg) against streptozocin-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN) in hypogonadal (HG) rats for 12 weeks. First, we tested the HG effect on hormone levels, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress in non-diabetic (ND) and diabetic (D) rats. HG was induced with the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist cetrorelix (0.71 mg/kg). Diabetes enhanced hormonal hypogonadism and increased inflammation and oxidative stress. Next, experiments examined the effect of early letrozole and valsartan intervention on DN in HG rats. HG-ND and HG-D rats were treated with letrozole alone or in combination with valsartan. HG-D rats developed proteinuria and had increased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, and histopathological evidence of renal injury, including glomerular hypertrophy and mesangial expansion. Valsartan alone or in combination with letrozole reduced proteinuria, improved renal functions, and reduced diabetes-induced renal angiotensin II. Both agents ameliorated NF-κB, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα levels. The combination decreased SOD, MDA, GPx levels, and prevented glomerular hypertrophy. In HG-D rats, valsartan reduced renal collagen IV and TGF-β1, especially when the testosterone level was corrected by letrozole. Thus, normalizing testosterone and inhibiting renal angiotensin II have a renoprotective effect against DN in HG male rats.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology
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An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.
A decapeptide that is cleaved from precursor angiotensinogen by RENIN. Angiotensin I has limited biological activity. It is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
A heptapeptide formed from ANGIOTENSIN II after the removal of an amino acid at the N-terminal by AMINOPEPTIDASE A. Angiotensin III has the same efficacy as ANGIOTENSIN II in promoting ALDOSTERONE secretion and modifying renal blood flow, but less vasopressor activity (about 40%).
An ANGIOTENSIN II analog which acts as a highly specific inhibitor of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.
Endocrine disorders are grouped into two categories: hormone imbalance - when a gland produces too much or too little of an endocrine hormone development of lesions (such as nodules or tumors) in the endocrine system, which may or may not affect...