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Saccadic latencies are known to change as a function of target eccentricity and size. Recently, it has been shown that latencies consistently change according to the amplitude of the step in proportion to the size of the target (Madelain, Krauzlis, & Wallman, 2005; Harwood, Madelain, Krauzlis, & Wallman, 2008; De Vries, Azadi, & Harwood, 2016). This effect, called the size-latency phenomenon, might be seen as a function of a cost-benefit relationship: Longer latencies might be explained by the lower benefit of making a saccade while the target mostly remains within the attentional field. Here, we probe this hypothesis by manipulating the cost-benefit relationship using a reinforcement procedure. Participants tracked a target stepping horizontally with varying amplitudes and sizes such that the step-to-size ratio was equal to either 0.3 or 1.5. We used a dynamic-reinforcement criterion in the blocked conditions. In the 0.3-ratio condition, any latency shorter than the criterion was reinforced. In the 1.5-ratio condition, any latency longer than the criterion was reinforced. During baseline, we observed the size-latency effect with large differences in latencies depending on the ratio in force (229 and 161 ms, respectively, for 0.3 and 1.5). After learning, distributions shifted toward the shorter or longer value (198 and 236 ms, respectively, for 0.3 and 1.5). On average, latencies decreased by 31 ms and increased by 75 ms according to the ongoing reinforcement contingencies. Our results indicate that reinforcement contingencies can considerably affect saccadic-latency distributions, and support the idea of a cost-benefit evaluation of saccade triggering.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of vision
To analyse cost-effectiveness of anchorage reinforcement with buccal miniscrews and with molar blocks. We hypothesized that anchorage with miniscrews is more cost-effective than anchorage with molar b...
The current study compared the development of response patterns for operant wheel-running and lever-pressing on fixed-interval schedules. Eleven female Long-Evans rats were exposed to fixed-interval (...
Recent studies have demonstrated that saccadic reaction times (SRTs) are influenced by the temporal regularities of dynamic environments (Vullings & Madelain, 2018). Here, we ask whether discriminativ...
Making a transfer in kind reduces its value to recipients but can improve targeting. We develop an approach to quantifying this tradeoff and apply it to home care. Using randomized experiments by Medi...
We seek to characterize how faster tumour shrinkage rate (k) can lead to paradoxically shorter Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) time to progression ('TTP20' - tumour size exceedin...
Aim: Hypothesis of this study was that WBV activates different receptors or reflex pathways depend on vibration intensity. Aim of this study was to test this hypothesis. Methods: This stu...
Clinical pharmacy services are vital in the prevention of adverse drug events (ADEs) in clinical practice, extending beyond the hospital to chronic disease management in outpatient setting...
Terminal latency index, residual latency and median ulnar F latency difference in carpal tunnel syndrome are specific parameters for the diagnosis
The purpose of this study is to test the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of Community Reinforcement Training (CRT) provided in a group therapy format. The goals of CRT are to teach parents...
The purpose of the study is to evaluate a sustainable and broadly accessible treatment delivery model (Motiv8) for smoking cessation based on abstinence-reinforcement.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Computer disks storing data with a maximum reduction of space and bandwidth. The compact size reduces cost of transmission and storage.
The science concerned with the benefit and risk of drugs used in populations and the analysis of the outcomes of drug therapies. Pharmacoepidemiologic data come from both clinical trials and epidemiological studies with emphasis on methods for the detection and evaluation of drug-related adverse effects, assessment of risk vs benefit ratios in drug therapy, patterns of drug utilization, the cost-effectiveness of specific drugs, methodology of postmarketing surveillance, and the relation between pharmacoepidemiology and the formulation and interpretation of regulatory guidelines. (Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 1992;1(1); J Pharmacoepidemiol 1990;1(1))
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
Approach to improve the quality of care by selectively encouraging or discouraging the use of specific health care services, based on their potential benefit to patients' health, relative to their cost. One element is lowering beneficiary cost sharing or out-of-pocket spending to increase medication adherence.
Multiple Sclerosis MS
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common disabling neurological condition affecting 100,000 young adults in the UK. The condition results from autoimmune damage to myelin, causing interference in nerve signaling. Symptoms experienced depend on the pa...