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In the comparative interrupted time series design (also called the method of difference-in-differences), the change in outcome in a group exposed to treatment in the periods before and after the exposure is compared with the change in outcome in a control group not exposed to treatment in either period. The standard difference-in-difference estimator for a comparative interrupted time series design will be biased for estimating the causal effect of the treatment if there is an interaction between history in the after period and the groups; for example, there is a historical event besides the start of the treatment in the after period that benefits the treated group more than the control group. We present a bracketing method for bounding the effect of an interaction between history and the groups that arises from a time-invariant unmeasured confounder having a different effect in the after period than the before period. The method is applied to a study of the effect of the repeal of Missouri's permit-to-purchase handgun law on its firearm homicide rate. We estimate that the effect of the permit-to-purchase repeal on Missouri's firearm homicide rate is bracketed between 0.9 and 1.3 homicides per 100,000 people, corresponding to a percentage increase of 17% to 27% (95% confidence interval: 0.6, 1.7 or 11%, 35%). A placebo study provides additional support for the hypothesis that the repeal has a causal effect of increasing the rate of state-wide firearm homicides.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.)
Behavioral health issues like anxiety and depression negatively impact numerous aspects of primary care, including medical regimen adherence, communication, physical well-being, and engagement in bene...
Current guidelines for addressing opioid cessation in the context of chronic pain management recommend that opioids be discontinued if the risks outweigh the benefits. However, few studies have focuse...
As the computing power of hand-held devices grows, there has been increasing interest in the capture of depth information, to enable a variety of photographic applications. However, under low-light co...
Rural communities, especially farmers, are exposed to numerous concerns and stressors due to their type of occupation. The present study aimed at evaluating and prioritizing occupational stressors tha...
We estimated the seroprevalence of Heartland virus antibodies to be 0.9% (95% CI 0.4%-4.2%) in a convenience sample of blood donors from northwestern Missouri, USA, where human cases and infected tick...
Study Comparing Citalopram Hydrobromide Tablets 40 mg (Torrent Pharmaceuticals Ltd) and RLD Tablets 40 mg (Manufactured By Forest Pharmaceuticals Inc, Missouri) in 24+2 Normal Healthy Male Subjects in Fed Condition
- Objective: - The objective of this study is to compare the rate and extent of absorption of the Test Product, Citalopram Hydrobromide 40 mg (Torrent Pharmaceutical Li...
Using a 2x2 randomized factorial design, we will conduct a statewide field trial in Missouri to compare the relative and combined effects of these two strategies for augmenting an existing...
The purpose of this study is to investigate mother's attitudes about vaccinating their 11-14 year old children against the human papillomavirus (HPV). Among mothers who do not plan to vacc...
The goal of this study is to evaluate an educational video intervention (called Starting the Conversation) aimed to enhance breast cancer patients' beliefs about and communication with res...
The present study explores the ability of dermatologists to influence patients' behavior using a novel and brief (3 minute) behavioral intervention in the context of naturally occurring pa...
An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
The branch of anatomy that concerns the structure and function of bones.
State bounded on the north by Nebraska on the east by Missouri, on the south by Oklahoma, and on the west by Colorado.